Appendice: dove si parla anche di
cerchi nel grano e "mind control"
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5. LES CERCLES DE CULTURE
Ils sont observés essentiellement dans le sud de l'Angleterre (Hampshire, Wiltshire…) depuis les années 60, et plus récemment sur toute la surface du globe. A ce jour, leur nombre a été évalué à au moins 5 000 [LP98].
Il s'agissait au début d'épis de blé trouvés couchés dans un champ et aplatis au sol en forme de cercle. Le phénomène s'est ensuite diversifié et complexifié considérablement. Aujourd'hui les dessins trouvés dans les champs sont des formes géométriques complexes (voir exemple fig. 5-a) d'une taille pouvant atteindre plusieurs centaines de mètres, et réalisées en un temps très court, de l'ordre d'une demi minute [PDCA89 p. 156 et LP98]. De nombreuses hypothèses ont été examinées dont celle des xtraterrestres
puisque des ovnis sont souvent observés à proximité [PDCA89 p. 17, 35, 38, 63, 68, 84, 89 et 98], projetant parfois un rayon lumineux vers le sol [PDCA89 p. 115].
Fig. 5-a : exemple d'agriglyphe
Il est vraisemblable que ces dessins géométriques soient produits par un tir aérien d'origine militaire, à l'aide d'un canon laser à micro-ondes piloté par ordinateur. Les arguments qui appuient cette thèse sont les suivants :
Pourquoi des micro-ondes :
Les recherches du Dr Levengood, biophysicien américain, corroborées par les analyses de Ken Larsen, un biologiste anglais, ont montré que la façon dont les tiges (blé, colza…) sont couchées sans être brisées ni abîmées [PDCA89 p. 25…] est typique d'une action par micro-ondes UHF. On peut voir ainsi des tiges de colza courbées à 90 degrés et dont les fleurs sont encore intactes, alors que le colza se brise facilement quand on essaye de le courber à la main [PDCA89 p. 151]. La nouvelle position prise par la plante devient définitive. Elle continue à pousser horizontalement [PDCA89 p. 31 et 158] et se brise si on tente de la redresser [PDCA89 p. 140].
Des phénomènes d'origine électromagnétique sont observés sur les lieux : boussole affolée [PDCA89 p. 172], perturbation d'appareils électroniques [PDCA89 p. 44, 60 et 172-173], perturbation des radiofréquences, flashs lumineux [PDCA89 p. 34, 52, 65 et 95], craquements sonores [PDCA89 p. 52, 63, 66 et 172-173], animaux incommodés [PDCA89 p. 65 et 81], effets radiesthésiques [PDCA89 p. 177-178], etc. De nombreux effets positifs (guérisons…) ou négatifs (paralysie temporaire…) sont aussi observés sur les humains [LP98]. Notons que certains effets pourraient aussi s'expliquer par une réaction des engrais ou pesticides soumis au rayonnement à micro-ondes, réaction pouvant dégager des gaz toxiques [LP98, mentionnant les phosphates organiques]. Les apparitions de flashs lumineux et les craquements sonores ne sont pas forcément des phénomènes objectifs et ils pourraient n'être que des sensations induites dans le cerveau du témoin par un rayonnement électromagnétique. Albert Budden donne un exemple de magnétophosphène : " Si le cerveau du sujet est exposé à un champ magnétique [alternatif] dont la fréquence varie de 10 à 100 Hz et dont la puissance varie de 200 à 1 000 G, le sujet verra des flashs de lumière […] en haut à gauche de son champ visuel. " [AB98 p. 59-60 citant les recherches de L. Ruttan, M. Persinger et S. Koren] (voir annexe A § II pour plus de détails).
L'enquêteur Busty Taylor a montré que des échantillons de plantes ou de terrain prélevés dans un cercle de culture pouvaient être attirés par un simple aimant [AB98 p. 50-51]. Cela pourrait s'expliquer par le fait que les particules ferromagnétiques présentes dans les poussières de l'atmosphère se sont agglutinées à l'emplacement du cercle, après ou lors de sa création. Certaines de ces particules ont pu être examinées au microscope. Elles semblaient avoir fondu au contact du sol ou de la plante pour former un fin vernis craquelé.
On a retrouvé dans une formation un oiseau dont le corps avait littéralement explosé, comme s'il avait été cuit vivant au four à micro-ondes, et dans d'autres formations des hérissons desséchés [LP98]. On note aussi que les grains de blés sont déshydratés et croustillants. Ils sont moins conducteurs électriquement d'après les travaux du Dr Levengood.
La technologie des lasers à micro-ondes est apparue dans les années 50 et s'est perfectionnée au fur et à mesure que les dessins des cercles de culture se complexifiaient. Est-ce une simple coïncidence ?
Plus de 50% des formes réalisées en Angleterre apparaissent par temps couvert ou pluvieux : la couverture nuageuse permettrait ainsi de dissimuler la source du tir. Les micro-ondes peuvent traverser les nuages et agir sous la pluie, et elles sont peut-être moins dommageables pour la plante lorsqu'il pleut.
Certains dessins suggèrent l'utilisation d'un rayon rotatif d'un diamètre variable selon les cercles [PDCA89 p. 156]. Ce diamètre pourrait correspondre à la dispersion naturelle ou provoquée d'un rayon maser tiré à haute altitude. Il peut être estimé à moins de 30 cm à 20 km de la source du tir.
Pourquoi par ordinateur :
Les formes géométriques dessinées aujourd'hui sont typiques de ce que l'on peut voir sur ordinateur : formes 3D, formes fractales… Certaines sont assez complexes mathématiquement
Fig. 5-b : divers pictogrammes observés en Angleterre
Les formes sont dessinées très rapidement, de jour comme de nuit, parfois devant des témoins qui ont vu les épis se coucher devant eux en quelques dizaines de secondes. Trois témoignages de ce type ont été recueillis à ce jour, provenant de témoins connus et réputés fiables [LP98]. De nombreux autres témoignages émanent de personnes malheureusement moins fiables.
Pourquoi un tir aérien :
Il n'y a pas de traces d'accès au sol même quand le champ n'est pas strié de traces de tracteur car il n'est pas traité, ou lorsque la terre est boueuse [PDCA89 p. 68, 107, 113 et 155]. Rappelons qu'un champ de colza arrivé à maturité est impénétrable à pied car les plantes, qui peuvent atteindre 1,50 m de haut, sont liées étroitement entre elles.
On observe parfois des branches d'arbres brisées ou brûlées [PDCA89 p. 174 et 184].
Pourquoi par les militaires :
La technologie HPM (High Power Microwave) est aujourd'hui utilisée par l'armée pour détruire des équipements électroniques ennemis [JV90a p. 278, d'après un article de Keith Florig].
La " guerre des étoiles " du président Reagan (IDS – Initiative de Défense Stratégique) proposait la mise en place de divers dispositifs laser antimissile. Citons le GBL (Ground Based Laser), canon au sol pointé vers un satellite réflecteur renvoyant le rayon vers un satellite miroir de combat, et le SBL (Space Based Laser) visant directement la cible. Même si le projet global a été abandonné, certains de ces dispositifs ont pu être réalisés à plus petite échelle [cf FV97 p. 276-279]. Le tir pourrait aussi être effectué à partir d'un avion (airborne laser) ou encore d'un ballon dirigeable placé à 20 km d'altitude, et stabilisé par exemple par des moteurs à propulsion ionique [cf PLS98 p. 62-63]. Comme on le voit, les moyens techniques nécessaires ne semblent guère accessibles qu'aux militaires.
En 1991, une formation est apparue devant la résidence de campagne du Premier ministre britannique John Major, pointant vers la maison. Cette résidence est évidemment sous haute surveillance par peur d'actes terroristes de l'IRA. Quelle organisation autre que celle des services secrets pourrait être à l'origine de cette formation ? De nombreux dessins ont aussi été observés dans des zones militaires grillagées et sous surveillance.
Les militaires souhaitent entretenir la croyance aux extraterrestres et ils font des expériences de guerre psychologique (voir paragraphe précédent). Ils ont les moyens de leurrer les observateurs avec de fausses soucoupes de façon à ce que les cercles soient attribués aux extraterrestres.
Les services secrets militaires ne sont pas arrêtés par le risque de tuer. Or malheureusement, les " cercles " ont déjà fait au moins une victime : le 22 octobre 1987, alors que son jet passait à la verticale d'un cercle de culture, le pilote s'est éjecté puis s'est détaché de son parachute avant de s'écraser au sol [cf PDCA89 p. 104]. Certains photographes aériens rapportent que les dessins ont une influence sensible sur eux et sur l'avionique lorsqu'on les survole.
L'armée britannique coopère largement avec l'armée américaine et a pu accepter de prêter " son " terrain.
Les formations authentiques ont bien sûr suscité de nombreuses imitations qui furent d'abord rares et maladroites et sont aujourd'hui plus courantes et parfois impressionnantes si les faussaires ont travaillé en équipe pendant de longues heures. Des compétitions ont d'ailleurs été organisées mais aucun faux n'a pu résister à une analyse approfondie.
Pour distinguer un dessin authentique d'un faux, les chercheurs se basent essentiellement sur la courbure de la tige de la plante à sa base, la plante devant toujours être intacte, ce que les imitateurs ne peuvent obtenir alors qu'ils parcourent le dessin en tous sens lors de sa création. Freddy Silva utilise parfois la photographie infrarouge sur laquelle on doit voir apparaître des traces de perturbations dans la répartition de l'eau dans le sol si la formation a bien été créée par un rayonnement calorifique. Debbie Benstead et d'autres chercheurs identifient souvent clairement un goût métallique dans la bouche quand ils marchent dans une formation authentique [LP98] ce qui pourrait être dû à l'effet d'un champ électromagnétique rémanent agissant sur les plombages dentaires à l'intérieur de la bouche.
En 1991, d'après les recherches de George Wingfield, la CIA et le British Ministry of Defence incitèrent secrètement deux retraités, David Chorley et Douglas Bower, à déclarer qu'ils étaient les auteurs des cercles observés jusqu'alors, sans pour autant en apporter la preuve. Lorsque cette explication devint clairement insuffisante, des étudiants en agriculture firent ensuite leur entrée en scène pour revendiquer l'origine des cercles. Dès lors qu'il sera admis que des micro-ondes sont utilisées, va-t-on voir apparaître dans les médias un groupe de savants farceurs qui font des dessins dans les champs à partir de leur satellite de télécommunication ?
On trouvera en fin de cet ouvrage la description d'un équipement à usage militaire qui conviendrait parfaitement à la création de cercles de culture à l'aide de micro-ondes.
" Le cycle des cercles reprend "
Photo Emmanuel Dehlinger
" Ils sont de retour… Les cercles de culture du Hampshire font leur
réapparition. Ce dessin complexe a été repéré le week-end dernier à Stephen
Castle Down, au bord de la route qui va de Winchester à Corhampton. " [Article paru dans le Hampshire Chronicle du vendredi 7 juillet 2000].
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Derived from the Acronym L.A.S.E.R. : Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Name of a device or process that amplifies radiation Cooperative emission of photons from an inverted population, usually defined as a device in which more stimulated emission is occurring than spontaneous emission. (some authors have a stricter definition of LASER). Einstein can be considered as the father of the laser.
A maser is a laser operating in the microwave. Stimulated emission from an inverted population was first demonstrated by Townes. A few years later naturally occurring masers were discovered by radioastronomers.
A laser based on a coherently prepared quantum system in which Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) is established thus leading to Lasing Without Inversion (LWI). Scully (1992) referred this type of medium as phaseonium; and he called a laser based on phaseonium a Phaseonium Laser, or phaser for short.
Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT)
Scully (1992) referred to a medium in which EIT is established as phaseonium; and he called a laser based on phaseonium a Phaseonium Laser, or phaser for short.
Essentially it breaks the symmetry between absorption and stimulated emission by using a coherent laser whose frequency closely matches the transition between the upper level and some other auxiliary level, the lasing medium can be coherently prepared in such a way that absorption between the lower and upper levels is reduced or eliminated.
The theoretical mechanism for this process is quantum mechanical interference between two different paths leading to the excited state. The total transition probability of going from the lower level to the upper level is the square of the sum of the probability amplitudes of two separate paths :
1.Virtual transition from the lower level trough the auxiliary level before reaching the upper level
2.Direct transitions to the upper level
Since we don't care through which path the quantum system follows we must sum the probability amplitudes for these two separate processes, and then take the square of this resulting amplitude to determine the total probability to make a transition from the lower level to the upper level.
The trick here is to choose the atom-laser quantum system in such a way that the separate amplitudes to reach the upper state have opposite phase and thus sum to zero; which implies that the square of this value which is equivalent to the total probability to make a transition from the lower level to the upper level is also zero. Ironically, by creating more paths to state 2, we can reduce the number of atoms that actually get there.
With a zero probability of absorption, the quantum system is transparent to the radiation of the 1-2 transition. Since stimulated emission is not affected, this implies that Lasing Without Inversion (LWI) is now possible which would only require a very small pump to maintain a very small number of atoms in the excited state. Therefore a population inversion is no longer a pre-requisite for laser action.
1.Induced transparency means Lasing Without Inversion (LWI)
Much lower power pump beams required
Transitions which normally shouldn't lase can be made to lase.
X-Ray and XUV resonant transitions can be made to lase.
2.Increased index of refraction for inverse Cerenkov particle accelerators
3.Research into the fundamental properties of quantum systems
LWI X-RAY RECOMBINATION PLASMA LASERS
This has important implications for the next generation of plasma lasers. Because spontaneous decay rates scale as the ion charge to the fourth power, the pump must supply 1,000 times as much energy and deliver it 10,000 times faster than optical lasers. For optically pumped lasers, this translated to pump powers thresholds available only from the most powerful lasers on earth. This bothersome requirement is bypassed by using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT). EIT can render resonant transitions transparent, and open the door to highly efficient XUV and X-Ray LWI lasers operating between the ground state and first excited state.
Although resonance lines are usually among the largest energy transitions between any of the ion's quantum levels they can't be used in an ordinary lasers because of the strong absorption. This leads to a compromise choice of laser transitions among the upper levels which usually have longer wavelengths. In order to obtain shorter wavelengths x-ray lasers, transitions with larger energy differences must be used. Since the transition energies of ionized atoms scales as the square of the ion charge this translates to a higher degree of ionization and to higher pump powers. With LWI, a lower degree of ionization would be required as compared to the more 'traditional' x-ray lasers because the higher energy resonant transitions could be used. These lower charge ions would require less pump power to achieve and since a population inversion is no longer neccessary only a negligible fraction of this power would be required. This means more of the pump power can be allocated to stripping the ions of their outer electrons.
Most x-ray lasers to date use the inefficient collisional excitation pumping scheme. However, if a recombination pumping scheme is adopted the efficiency can be dramatically increased. Therefore the combination of (a) lower ionization, (b) no need for inversion and (c) recombination pumping, promise to make tabletop x-ray phasers a reality. The applications of such an x-ray laser would be limitless.
LWI in STIMULATED RAMAN LASERS
Stimulated raman lasers operate successfully without the need for a population inversion (LWI), but they are the exception rather than the norm.
Directed Energy Weapons
DEWs are an interest of mine. Previously thought to be the stuff of science fiction these weapons are realities nowadays.
What are Directed energy weapons? Well lets explain a bit. There are a large number of weapons that can fall into this category.
Firstly EMP. EMP stands for electromagnetic pulse. Basically a short duration burst of Electro magnetism capable of disrupting most electrical and electronic systems. This phenomenon was first noted during nuclear weapon test blasts, it has however been produced electrically and is used in a number of non-lethal weapon systems (vehicle immobilisation etc.)
HERF. High energy radio frequency. Used similarly to emp it destroys electronic circuitry, it has also been used with frequency variations on biological targets a subject popular with the people who reference mind control a lot. Whilst a radio antennae to skull link has been shown be possible I personally would like to see more details on RF purposely taking out electronic targets.
HPM. High power microwave. Capable of disrupting electronic systems and biological targets.
Soliton Wave. Very powerful high energy effect destroys electronics.
Maser. Basically a magnetic version of the same process that occurs in laser, military versions have disrupted electronics successfully and the effects on biological targets would be obvious.
Laser. The good old science fiction standby. Light amplified stimulated emission of radiation. Beams capable of cutting through most materials.
Electro-Kinetic Weapons. Railguns, coilguns and the like. Basically the use of EM energy as a propellant.
So if all these great sci-fi weapons exist why don't we see more of them? Well most of these weapons work by employing a massive energy dump. That energy has to come from somewhere, a power source capable of delivering in even the smallest cases at least 1 kilojoule of power in an intense high energy pulse, (Soliton units often make use of explosive). The generators to do this sort of thing just don't come easy, most power supplies for these weapons involve huge capacitor banks that have to be charged between shots (Think of a camera flash unit on a giant scale). Whilst there are cases where there may have been military use of such weapons and in some former East block countries supposed criminal use. The wide spread usage will remain limited by the power requirements of the devices in question.
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The Design and Fabrication of a Damage Inflicting RF Weapon by 'Back Yard' Methods
Mr. David Schriner
Joint Economic Committee
United States Congress
Wednesday, February 25, 1998
Note, this paper reflects the personal views and opinion of the author. The material in this paper has been deemed unclassified by those who hold his security clearances but it does not specifically represent their views. This paper is a very brief statement on the subject and it is written from a non-technical point of view to provide an easy look at the subject manner by non-professional people or groups. Further elaboration on any point can be requested in either a technical format or at a classified level with the proper security restrictions in place.
For many years research activities in different countries have focused on the use of radio frequency (RF) waves as a weapon. Most of this work has been titled or described under the title of High Powered Microwave (HPM). Worldwide, large amounts of money have been invested in this technology to support both the military interests but also the industrial heating needs. Like most technologies, with maturity the applications increase and the costs to use it become lower. One primary point of this paper is that as these technologies mature they also become affordable and usable by criminals and terrorists. Most military programs are classified and the general public knows little concerning their nature but as the technology becomes available to criminals and terrorists, it may be directly applied to the infrastructure elements of our society. This paper addresses the question concerning the possibility of certain types of this technology being used against the society.
The primary focus of this paper will be on a different and new form of HPM called Transient Electromagnetic Devices (TED) that could, in the hands of enemies, criminals, pranksters, or terrorists pose a significant threat to much of the United States infrastructure components that are based on micro-circuits and computer or micro-processor control. This includes financial institutions, aircraft, security, medical, automotive, and other critical equipment used everyday in our society. The systems necessary for the production of this form of energy are much easier to construct and use than the earlier and more well known conventional HPM narrow-band systems that are currently in development for military use. Millions of dollars have been spent on the conventional HPM, systems and it is the type that DOD managers and their funding offices are well acquainted with. This paper will briefly speak to these but the main focus of it will be on the very different type, the TED systems, which is less well known and may be the RF weapon of choice to the modern cyber or infrastructure RF warrior.
Conventional HPM systems generate RF waves similar to those used for many different purposes including communications, heating, and radio location purposes. We are all very familiar with the term frequency as expressed in mega-hertz (MHz) when we tune our FM radios over the FM band from 88 to 108 MHz. Likewise with the AM radio band from .55 to 1.5 MHz. These expressions of frequency describe how many complete RF cycles occur each second from the radio transmitters that generate them. Radar systems also generate RF signals but these are in thousands of MHz each second (the term Giga-Hertz or GHz applies). This is the type of signal that conventional HPM systems generate or radiate, a sine wave. TED systems do not generate a sine wave and operate entirely differently than narrow-band systems.
Narrow band HPM systems are similar to microwave ovens in that they use high powered sine waves to cause material placed in their field to generate heat. This is exactly what narrow band HPM systems do, they attempt to use extremely high powered RF sine waves to cause a target system to burn out. Other types of HPM use high powered, but conventional wave-like signals to enter a target system and cause some of the conventional effects that a jammer or countermeasure system might. All of these narrow band HPM systems employ sine waves that are very different than the signals generated and radiated and employed by the TED systems.
RF power is expressed in Watts and one million Watts is expressed as "megaWatts" or MW. A kitchen microwave oven, for example, uses a magnetron tube to produce a continuous wave (CW) .5 to 1 MW RF signal to provide energy to heat the material placed in its presence. In a simple way of describing the heating, the powerful microwave signals cause the molecules of the material to rub together at the frequency generated by the magnetron and heat results in the material exposed to the field. Materials such as meat, many materials containing carbon molecules, and even water heat well when placed in such a field. Many industrial heating applications require considerably larger power levels than the home microwave oven but the basic principles are the same.
It is with this view of microwave heating that we have the first notion of the use of microwaves as a weapon. One assumes that if a microwave signal of extremely high power level is aimed at a distant target of some type, then heating and perhaps burnout of some part of the target would occur. If the signal was tuned to the operating frequency of a targeted radio receiver, for example, one would assume that if enough power was provided in the radiated beam directed at the target's radio antenna, that the radio's "front-end", that part directly connected to the antenna, could be heated sufficiently to burn it out. The key here is whether there is an entry point for the high powered signal to enter the targeted system and whether there is enough power to cause burnout.
The community involved with HPM systems generally describes a "front-door" and a "back-door" entry point. A front-door point might be, as in the above example, an antenna normally used by the target platform, such as an aircraft or a tank, for some RF function such as communication or radar. Here the RF weapon designer would attempt to radiate an RF signal into the target platform's antenna and cause either a burnout or a disruption effect. A back-door entry point might be an unshielded wire at some point on the targeted platform that would allow the RF weapon signal to enter some part of the platform's electronic systems and, as before, cause a burnout or disruption of some sort. The weapon designer would like to have a priori knowledge of the target so as to select the right frequency and use the right modulations to accomplish the desired result.
Since this extremely high-powered RF generation technology also fills the needs of industrial heating applications, essentially very high powered microwave ovens, there is a universal worldwide need for the technology and export controls are confused when it comes to the possible use of this technology as a weapon.
The New Kid on the block, the Transient Electromagnetic Device (TED):
There is a new type of source technology currently under development in our country and, very likely, other countries as well. This type of directed RF energy is quite different than the narrow-band systems previously described. This type of directed energy is called transient electromagnetic radiation. Instead of generating a train of smooth sine-waves, as the conventional narrow-band systems do, it generates a single spike-like form of energy. This spike-like burst of potential does not have "cycles" or waves and it may be only one or two hundred pico-seconds (psec) in length. 100 psec is the time that it takes light to travel 1.2 inches and often these short time duration puoses are described in "light-inches".
It is very similar to the type of signal that occurs when you rub your feet on the carpet on a dry day and then touch your computer keyboard. An electrostatic discharge (ESD) occurs when you do this. The electrostatic charge on your body discharges onto and into the computer and a very brief amount of very high current flows quickly from your finger into the computer circuits causing a momentary break in the normal flow of signals and bits of information. Because of this momentary break in the "bit-flow" the ESD may cause the computer to crash and in some cases it may cause sensitive electronic circuits to be actually damaged to the point where they are non-functional and must be replaced. This vulnerable item may be just a single semiconductor diode in a single integrated chip in a circuit on the motherboard, and there are hundreds or thousands of these in a desk-top computer. It is often economical to simply replace a whole circuit board of components rather than trying to find the one specific circuit and replacing just it. This type of new weapon source, a transient electromagnetic device (TED), is actually a system that radiates an ESD-like signal that is intended to cause a similar responses, as just described, to the targeted system.
Let us look at the differences between narrow-band (NB) and TED HPM systems. The NB systems generate sine waves, the TEDs don't. The NB systems are very costly and go to great lengths to generate very high average powers, the TEDs don't, the NB systems are very complex systems, the TEDs are not, the NB systems generate very high average powers (microwave heating), the TEDs generate very high peak powers (and are poor RF heaters). They both use an antenna and the larger it is, the more power they can radiate, in a narrow focused beam, at the target.
In a narrow-band HPM device, high technology vacuum tubes are used that are, in some ways, very similar to those used in our highest-powered TV or FM stations and radar systems. They are very delicate devices, are complex, and very expensive. They require large amounts of primary power and generally require some type of cooling system, either air blowers or liquid types. All of this complexity requires complex engineering and development, and the manufacturing time is great and costly. Not for the amateur or a low-cost, start-up operation. Generally a highly skilled team of various technical experts of numerous engineering specialties is required to manage the development and operation of such devices.
TEDs, on the other hand, are relatively simple devices that generally use simple spark-gap switches, either in oil or in pressurized gas pulse storage lines. The power supplies are relatively small in size and much lower in average power and cost than for the NB systems. The engineering and mechanical issues are small in comparison to the narrow-band devices. The technology is well described in the various professional Pulse Power references found in good technical libraries. The significant development, engineering, and manufacturing costs are small in comparison to narrow band. Most of the technology required is available and is an outcrop of the various nuclear and flash x-ray work done in the past.
NB systems operate at some given frequency with a small bandwidth, and you will find them at one spot on the radio dial. The TEDs do not even have a definable frequency but instead, because of their short time duration, they occupy a very large spectrum space, and you will find it everywhere on every radio dial. When a TED pulse is generated it will have the ability to excite responses in systems designed to receive at any frequency from as low as 100 MHz up to several GHz, from the FM band up to the lower microwave bands. A NB system would excite only those systems that were operating at its frequency, say 2.345 GHz, so a narrow band system must be "tuned" to a given target's known soft spot but a TED system would go after any soft spot of the target platform, back-door or front door.
So what is the bottom line of this discussion?
Because of the simplicity of TED systems and the suspicion that they may cause disruptive effects to electronic systems that they are aimed at, they make an attractive approach for RF terrorists to use for various purposes. We see hints of this vulnerability in the many warnings that we get each month about locations where we should not use radios and electronic devices for fear that we will do some damage to something. They make passengers on aircraft, during take off and landing, turn off radios, games, and other electronic devices. Hospitals regularly place signs that electronic devices are not allowed. Many people do not want you using your cellular telephones near their computer. Many repair shops require that wrist-bands attached to ground be used when opening electronic equipment for repair. We have a lot of things out there in the world that either have known or suspected vulnerabilities to RF fields or electrostatic discharge. A TED system provides both of these conditions, an RF electrostatic discharge nature and its output (the number of pulses per second) can be adjusted for maximum disruptive effect. Its peak power output can be made much higher than those fields ordinarily found in everyday systems like cellular radios, radar systems, TV and FM stations, and simple ESD effects.
It clearly appears, based on testing that has been done as well the information presented at unclassified technical papers and conferences, that the TED would make a good terrorist RF weapon and that, with the proliferation of high technology infrastructure systems that are integral to everyday life in our country, we would be very vulnerable to such systems. It is also clear, because of the extreme cost of repairing all of the vulnerable systems, that until this vulnerability was shown, no one would have much concern or interest in it.
Considerable discussion and innuendo has recently been made concerning the possibility of building a TED source using "back-yard" methods, a Radio Shack Terrorist RF weapon. Such a system would have to have sufficient power to, with some degree of probability, cause detrimental effects to common infrastructure items such as those found in; financial institutions (banks, ATMs, and stores), medical facilities, airport facilities, general transportation items (auto engine controls, ABS, air-bags, etc.), utility facilities (telephone exchanges, power grid controllers), and other infrastructure entities. This type of source is imagined to be what a criminal, terrorist, or prankster could develop or build in a reasonable time, with reasonable tools and materials and with open literature or reference material.
The accomplishment of such an effort would require that either some sort of estimate of what power level would be necessary to accomplish a given objective or to simply make all of the power that could be made, and then go out and test the weapon against various target items under either controlled conditions or actual attempts against a family of established targets. Since it is an extremely complex process to even come close to some predicted level of vulnerability, using even the most advanced modeling and analysis techniques, the obvious approach would be to "go for the maximum power and then test" approach. Normal testing would be done under strict safety and security conditions but a terrorist would not have such limitations. Normal tests would be conducted at a test location but a terrorist would simply drive around the block or building until something happened.
An important criteria for an RF terrorist would be that any of the parts and materials used would have to be those that could be easily found in any city and were not traceable by conventional counter-terrorist agencies such as the local police, insurance investigators, and FBI.
It is clear that there are four basic configurations that could be used, one the size of a briefcase that could be placed very close to a target system (like a computer at a desk or counter), one that could be mounted into a small van and disguised to appear as ordinary, one that was dedicated to be set up at a remote target location and used for some purpose where appearance was not of any concern, and finally, a system that could be located in one's back yard such that it could be aimed at over flying aircraft.
The systems would likely have much in common and the builder would employ a learning curve to go to the next more advanced system. The results or vulnerabilities found with any system could be factored into the use of the next system. This learn-as-you-go process would be a natural approach for such an amateur effort.
The means of manufacturing the system includes parts and tools that one could purchase at a hardware store or those found in an average garage shop. Tools such as a small lathe with an integral milling machine (available via mail-order at a cost about $2,000), drill press, and general garage tools should be all that were needed, nothing exotic.
The effort would likely be started with the small briefcase-sized unit. It could use automobile ignition parts and a camcorder ni-cad battery for the power supply. It might use a small dish antenna bought mail-order and some parts picked up at a surplus store. The total cost of such a unit would be about $300 and it could be built in about one week. The development behind its design could be accomplished by doing some basic experiments with stun-guns or other high voltage components found in surplus stores, automotive shops, and parts from a "well equipped electronics junk box". The unit could easily be tested at close range to the type of computers and hardware found in any home office and if it caused some ill effect, then the terrorist would have proven the effectiveness of the system. Success with step 1.
The next step would be to refine the technology and increase the voltage and the repetition frequency. An advanced design might use a 6-foot TV dish antenna that could be bought mail-order (for $200) and it might use a more advanced spark-gap unit than was used in the earlier model. Such learn-as-you-go is a natural process in the design of spark-gaps.
Such a unit using a larger antenna (a mail-order 12-foot TV dish), when finished would look like a simple TV dish system and it (or many like it) could be mounted such that it could easily be pointed at over-flying aircraft.
In support of the information presented in this testimony and taking advantage of the winter's need to work indoors, a unit that uses oil spark-gaps was designed, built, and tested. The materials for it were mail-ordered at a cost of about $500 and about one week was needed to fabricate the mechanical hardware. It use two ignition coils and a battery for power, an automobile fuel pump and filter for the oil circulation, and commonly available transformer oil. An additional week was required to work out all of the electrical wiring, the oil lines, and the general finishing details. This unit was ready for testing in two weeks after starting the effort.
The signal radiated from the unit was measured and found to be a very significant power level that can be compared against available vulnerability and susceptibility levels of military equipment. When the weather permits, this unit will be tested against a set of infrastructure targets at an official test range. From the measurements and known signal levels, this unit is expected to be consistently deadly to many types of infrastructure items at ranges suitable for terrorist usage.
This quickly-developed low-cost system could easily be placed in a small van and used in a parking lot or directed at buildings that the van was driven past. It is highly likely that this type of device would be a very effective terrorist system and the findings of its design could be factored into another either a larger, higher powered device, or a more advanced design each with significantly greater effectiveness.
The net result of all of this design, experimentation, fabrication and measurement proves that such a weapon system could be made by anyone with an engineering degree or even a bright technician with good hardware experience. The technical information required can be found in open sources, if not just from good common engineering sense. The materials needed are nothing special and if the effort is made, advanced concepts can be made using everyday hardware such as automotive ignition systems. The testing to date has been very limited but the results of this testing have provided considerable insight to just what is vulnerable in infrastructure systems. This insight and work leads to a firm opinion that a terrorist would have little trouble developing such technology and that he would have a high probability of success in the use as an RF weapon against our infrastructure elements found in any city or near facilities around the country.
This work has been done within the proper security guidelines since:
1. The models made in my home laboratory/workshop used off-the-shelf materials and open-source references.
2. The laboratory tests of this hardware were made in a controlled environment with the proper security in place.
3. The results of these tests, the data capabilities, and the target set identities are kept in a facility cleared for classified storage.
4. The development of any of this hardware is reported on a regular basis to those with whom I relate at a classified level to assure that they are informed of the work and are able to apply this to their interests and efforts if necessary. Any of this hardware can be used by them for any determination of utility to military interests.
Work in this area will be continued and an aggressive test and evaluation of these "back yard" techniques and methods will be accomplished. This process will be done in cooperation, and if requested, under the direction of agencies with an interest in this non-military weapon related process. The author of this report will, if requested, provide to the Committee further details at a classified level in the proper security environment.
* * * * *
Electromagnetic Weapons and Mind Control
from CNN's Special Assignment, about 1985
The very first part is missing from the tape.
That's the technology that can beam radio frequencies to destroy missile and aircraft components, scramble radar screens, and even alter human mind functions. It all sounds like another chapter in Star Wars controversy ... then military affairs specialist Chuck DeCaro hopefully can bring this issue into focus with this report.
Imagine the implications of a weapon with no visible trace -- a weapon that could knock out tanks, ships, and planes as fast as the speed of light. The same technology, with modifications, could disorient and even tranquilize military personnel, rendering them virtually helpless in the battle zone. These are the new weapons of war we will examine in this series.
For the past 40 years, the world has been riveted by the threat of nuclear war, and more recently by the prospect of space defenses using lasers and other modern technologies. But while both sides of the Geneva Summit will be focusing on these matters, progress is being made in even newer weapons that could render any arms agreement relatively useless.
Lightning is the most dramatic form of energy to be found in nature. Scientists have succeeded in creating limited types of artificial lightning. And some think that these could be the forerunners of a new type of directed-energy weapon, part of a family of weapons that operate within the radio frequency segment of the electromagnetic spectrum, and are thus referred to as radio frequency weapons.
Dr. James Fraser has researched electromagnetic effects for the Air Force for over ten years and he, like a growing number of weapons experts, feels that radio frequency, or RF, weapons could be the wildcard in the ongoing arms race.
You could have tremendous amounts of radiated power, and what you did with that power, then, is a matter of
engineering design, and what your goal is.
Robert Bass, a physicist and Ph.D. in mathematics, is working on U.S. weapons research. He says that the Soviets seem to be ahead in a number of areas, and especially in RF weapons.
We are behind the Soviet Union in directed energy weapons based on 60 gigahertz microwave beams.
Dr. Bass and others feel a most likely form of Soviet RF weaponry would be high-powered microwaves, similar to a focussed, ultra-high-intensity radar beam. It would literally cook humans, and knock out computers and electronic surveillance and communications gear.
An operational RF weapon, relatively cheap and reusable, could devastate sophisticated and expensive war machinery. The 20 million dollar F-16 fighter, for example, is totally controlled through electronic sensors and computers. With no manual flight controls, the plane would literally fall out of the sky after being hit with a high-intensity pulse of microwave radiation. Scientists say that microwaves and other types of RF pulses, operating at specific frequencies or windows, can be transmitted with little or no loss of power. Machines known as gyrotrons can produce the massive pulses needed to drive these devices, and it's believed that the Soviet Union has a three-to-five-year lead in this technology.
Over the past year CNN has repeatedly asked the Department of Defense and the Air Force about radio frequency weapons. After much resistance, DOD finally said that the subject was too sensitive to discuss.
This is a Tesla coil. It was invented some 90 years ago, but now a growing number of experts in the United States feel that it may form the basis of a new generation of Soviet weapons. They are known as radio frequency, or RF, weapons because they operate in the radio frequency spectrum. Their existence is noted in this Department of Defense publication, which says the Soviets could use them to destroy components of missiles, to interfere with radar and other electronic systems, and even to alter human mind functions.
The concept of RF weaponry was predicted at the turn of the century by Nicola Tesla, an American who had emigrated from Yugoslavia. He is best remembered as the man who invented alternating-current electricity.
In 1899, Tesla built this giant coil which produced 10 million volts of artificial lightning. From it he theorized the possibility of death rays. This, and many of his other ideas about the physics of electricity, were ridiculed by the scientific establishment.
Pure science is not a sure thing -- you can't predict what's going to work out and what's not going to work out.
Robert Golka, a research scientist, built a replica of the Tesla coil about 80 years later. Golka was trying to produce a phenomenon known as "ball lightning." He also used the Tesla coil to conduct testing for the U.S. Air Force.
What I was doing was setting in maybe five-foot-long models of advanced fighter aircraft, and we would want to try to find out which part of the airplane was more vulnerable to lightning strikes, whether it was a wing-tip or the
canard where the pilot sat, the dome, the...
These experiments could also demonstrate the effect of the electromagnetic pulse of a nuclear blast and, Golka says, the effect of RF weapons as well. Golka thinks that Tesla's theory that electromagnetic power could be transmitted through the Earth and its atmosphere without wires is a key element in the Soviet Union's work on RF weapons.
Tesla's novel weapons theories were generally ignored in the United States. Nikola Tesla died in 1943, and after the Second World War all his papers and effects were shipped to his native Yugoslavia where they were enshrined in a museum. Some say that that museum proved to be a goldmine for Soviet weapons scientists.
We haven't even formally, so far as I know, to ourselves, admitted that these weapons exist in the hands of the Soviet Union.
Weapons analyst Tom Bearden, a retired U.S. Army lieutenant-colonel, is among a small group of scientists and engineers who believe that the Soviets have perfected Tesla's ideas and are developing radio frequency weapons on a scale unimagined in this country.
There have been a series of tests of these kinds of weapons, apparently, for a number of years. For example, airliners from Iran, before the fall of the Shah, saw deep within the Soviet Union very large, glowing spherical balls of light which started out small and then expanded to very large size, which are apparently these kinds of weapons for use in an anti-ballistic missile defense role.
Bearden believes that these satellite photographs are of mysterious non-nuclear explosions near an uninhabited island in the East Siberian Sea, and that they are discharges from an RF weapon that uses intersecting energy beams called "scalars."
In doing so you can create, for example, either an electromagnetic explosion at a distance, or you can create an electromagnetic implosion at a distance -- the extraction of energy from a distant point. This would look like a cold explosion, so to speak, and I believe the thing on April the 9th, 1984, off the coast of Japan that involved several 747 jet airliners -- I believe that incident was a test of a cold-explosion weapon -- at least, it met all the characteristics.
Pilot Doug Happ was in one of the five airline crews that saw an incredibly large cloud rising from the moonlit overcast below.
It looked like a plate coming up through an overcast, bit it just kept expanding, and as it got higher it was apparent that you could see right through the middle of it, so it looked like a big smoke ring.
At the time that we first noticed this cloud we weren't sure what to do and we took no evasive action because we didn't know which way to go, and I think eventually we either rammed through it or it completely engulfed us.
Happ says when his flight reached Anchorage, Alaska it was checked for radioactive contamination. None was found.
Dr. James Fraser has done extensive research in electromagnetic effects for the U.S. Air Force.
It could be due to a strong electromagnetic beam, but we don't know that. They can also be caused by chance terminal gradients; we've had for several years studies of clear air turbulence, for instance, which have produced this kind of disruption.
The people who sighted those are experienced pilots and should have been familiar with that kind of event, and this apparently was something outside their experience.
There have been a number of times when Soviet technological surprise has upset the strategic balance. In 1948 the Soviets detonated an A-bomb years before it was thought possible. In 1957 the Soviets stunned the world by launching Sputnik One, the world's first artificial satellite. And in 1976 the Soviets were discovered to have been embarked upon a program to build particle beam weapons, a discovery which led, five years later, to America's Star Wars program.
In each case the United States was able to regain the balance. But this time, with radio frequency weapons, some scientists feel that the Soviet lead may be permanent.
Next, how RF devices could be used against the human brain.
Brainstorm was a science-fiction movie about a device which electronically injected thoughts into the human mind. In this scene, the mind-control machine projects images into the brain of the chief scientist through an electrode headset. The scientist then finds himself experiencing the thoughts of a wild truck ride.
But even in this futuristic Hollywood tale, the subject still had to be connected to the machine by an electrode headset.
But not as remarkable as a real-life experiment where I was the subject of a prototype device designed to project images into the mind without electrodes. The prototype machine, developed from Soviet scientific data, could, according to some scientists, have a profound effect as a weapon of war.
Electronic mind-control research is not new. A scientific milestone in this area came in the 1960s when Dr. Jose Delgado demonstrated remote control over a charging bull.
By connecting a radio antenna to electrodes inserted into the bull's brain, Delgado proved that the animal's aggressive impulses could be thwarted by electronically manipulating the bull's muscle reflexes.
Do you realize the fantastic possibilities if from the outside we could modify the inside; could we give messages to the inside?
But the beauty is that now we are not using electrodes.
In recent years Delgado has shown that the behavior of monkeys can be altered using low-power pulsing magnetic fields. But in these experiments, there were no antenna implants.
Any function in the brain -- emotions, intellect, personality -- could we perhaps modify by this non-invasive technology.
Delgado's research has so far been limited to animals.
But in the Soviet Union a radio frequency, or RF, device has been used for over 30 years to manipulate the moods of mental patients. It's called a Lida machine. It radiates pulses of radio frequency energy as well as light, sound, and heat. The pulse rate is in the extremely low-frequency range between 0 and 100 pulses per second.
Dr. Ross Adey is the top researcher at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Loma Linda, California. He has been investigating the effects of the Lida machine.
Now what do the Soviets use this machine for?
Well, they don't use it any more. We should be very clear that this is a machine that is regarded by them as somewhat obsolete technologically.
This scientist, who did not want his identity revealed, is employed by the U.S. Government and has done secret RF weapons research. He believes that tests done with the Lida and similar machines prove that humans are susceptible to remote alterations of mood and awareness.
Actor as Scientist
Certain kinds of weak electromagnetic signals work exactly like drugs, and so the promise is that anything you can do with drugs you could do with the right electromagnetic signal.
Apparently, there are specific sites involved, specific functions involved. It's a matter of matching up, just like it is with a pill or a drug, to cause an effect. You could have a cause and effect relationship between a magnetic field and a biological function.
CNN enlisted the help of noted physicist Dr. Elizabeth Rausher and electrical engineer Bill VanBise to build and test an RF mind-interference machine from data found in Soviet scientific literature.
The machine itself was inexpensive and easy to construct using parts from a consumer electronics store. It emits a weak magnetic field pulsed at extremely low frequency.
As the subject of the test I was blindfolded and my ears were blocked to prevent inadvertent clues as to what was happening. A magnetic probe was placed about 18 inches from my head.
As the experiment began, two signal generators produced waveform patterns that were transmitted by the magnetic probe at about one one-thousandth of the Earth's magnetic field strength.
VanBise -- watching a chart recorder
Describe anything that you see, if any.
In the control room VanBise varied the waveforms being generated.
In another room I could see waveforms changing shape in my mind.
DeCaro during experiment
A parabola just went by.
A parabola just went by.
Oh, yeah, I did. I just flipped the switch. Parabola?
VanBise -- makes note on the chart
Alright. Well, let's see. Check this out. That's what happened, I flipped the switch.
OK. A spike right there!
A spike there.
A tight spike.
I dramatically changed the generator; I stepped it by ten right here, and the intermix from the two generators was right where you said that you saw a spike.
VanBise said that when I failed to see any change it was he had not set the proper frequency and power levels. Later, I asked VanBise what a weapon using this technology could do.
Induce basically what would be considered hallucinations in people; direct them to do things against their so-called better judgement...
How easy would it be to assemble a weapon from existing off-the-shelf parts?
Three weeks, I could put together a weapon that would take care of a whole town.
We showed the results of our test to Dr. Robert Becker, a two-time Nobel nominee for his work in the biological effects of electromagnetism.
This is a very significant experiment because it carries our understanding of how vision is actually performed a step further into the mystery.
He said he thought the machine caused a disturbance in the brain's interpretation of vision and as such could be used as a weapon.
That kind of a disturbance in the visual system could markedly influence the operations of a fighter pilot, a helicopter pilot, or even as simple an aberration in the visual field as making everyone seeing double or everyone having their visual field jitter like a poorly-adjusted television screen.
The effect of that upon the efficiency with which an army and air force or a navy would operate would be catastrophic.
When we come back, more about RF weapons.
This is a Soviet Lida machine. It transmits low-energy radio pulses between 0 and 100 cycles per second. In the Soviet Union Lidas have been used for years to tranquilize psychiatric patients without physical contact.
This sound, which is received by short-wave radios in the United States, is generated by another Soviet radio frequency device. It is known as the Woodpecker because of its tapping noise. It is broadcast by a number of high-powered radio transmitters operating deep in the Soviet Union since July 4th, 1976.
Though the official Defense Department explanation of the Woodpecker is that it is an over-the-horizon radar designed to track U.S. missile launches, some scientists suspect that the Woodpecker is designed to interfere with human brain function.
As far as I'm concerned, the potential that this has for producing a direct psychoactive effect upon the total American population is there, has never been disproven...
Dr. Robert Becker is a pioneer in the field of bioeffects of electromagnetism.
The signal range within which the Woodpecker operates is that which has been reported by many investigators to produce a tranquilizing effect on animals.
We are just incredibly sensitive to these magnetic stimuli.
Dr. Bob Beck, a Ph.D. in nuclear engineering, has done extensive research into electromagnetic effects on humans.
The signal was permeating power grids in the United States, it was being picked up by power lines, re-radiated, it was coming into the homes on the light circuits...
I was surprised after coming here that the influence of electromagnetic fields was almost completely ignored
Dr. Larissa Valanskaya was heavily involved in electromagnetic research before being allowed to emigrate to the United States. She told CNN about Soviet Research in electromagnetic effects.
They demonstrated experimentally and also demonstrated experimentally that low-frequency, low-energy electromagnetic fields also can posses biological information -- biological efficiency because any field not only carries energy but also carries information.
She stated that the research was carried out on orders from the Soviet Government.
Of course, the military were extremely interested in this potential to promote influence...
Is the United States military working in the field of electronic mind-control?
Officially, the Department of Defense will not comment because the subject area is, quote: "Too sensitive."
But CNN has learned from this government scientist, who did not want to be identified, that a Navy laboratory conducted research into the use of an RF device for counter-terrorism and special operations.
Actor as the scientist
It's possible to entrain a certain percentage of a population, apparently, with weak magnetic fields.
The study also showed that RF signals could dissolve certain types of rat brain cells at a distance, causing disorientation and nausea.
According to the scientist, even though the program was successful, the government never followed up on it.
Dr. James Fraser did electromagnetic research for the U.S. Air Force for many years. At one time he proposed a battlefield RF weapons system.
You could make an antenna that would be carryable by a helicopter and that this could be expected to produce a wide variety of symptoms, actually, by humans who happened to be standing in the beam.
According to Dr. Fraser, the Air Force never followed up.
At Lawrence Livermore Laboratory another RF weapons concept is nicknamed "The Brain Bomb." According to the book Star Warriors the Brain Bomb would focus a nuclear blast into a huge pulse of low-frequency RF energy that would stun huge numbers of troops. Apparently it, too, has not yet been funded.
The Department of Defense will not comment about Soviet RF weapons, or if American RF weapons development is going forward. However, experts interviewed by CNN say that the Soviets are apparently ahead and could exploit that lead in a surprise strategic move -- a move that could have grave consequences for the United States.
From Washington this is Chuck DeCaro, CNN Special Assignments.
That's our program for this weekend. We would encourage you to send us any comments you might have or maybe you have a suggestion for a possible story we could look into. If so, write us in care of:
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Mind Control Forum