**13 -ETHER SPACE-TIME AND COSMOLOGY**

(April 2008)

ETHER SPACE-TIME & COSMOLOGY

(The present document indicates the contents and order processing of volume 1,

and the instructions to contributors to future volumes).

Copyright © 2008 by PD Publications, Liverpool, UK

All rights reserved

No parts of this book may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system

and transmitted in any form or by any means

without the written permission of the copyright owner.

Ether space-time and cosmology

Volume 1: Modern ether concepts relativity and geometry

Michael C. Duffy and Joseph Levy Editors

Volodymyr Krasnoholovets Executive editor

ISBN: 1 873 694 10 5

438 pages, Size 252/180mm

Illustration, front: Helix nebula by Robert Gendler

http://www.robgendlerastropics.com

Printed and bound in England by CPI Antony Rowe Ltd, Wiltshire

A book dealing with experimental and theoretical studies

devoted to the exploration of the modern ether concept, evidence

of its reality and implications for modern physics.

-5- Editor’s Foreword

-7- Introduction

-13- Ether as a Disclosing Model

Michael C. Duffy, School of Computing & Technology, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, Great Britain, SR1 3SD, & PO Box 342, Burnley, Lancashire, GB, BB10 1XL. E-mail: michael.duffy9@btopenworld.com

-47- Einstein’s New Ether 1916-1955

Ludwik Kostro, Department for Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, University of Gdańsk, ul. Bielańska 5, 80-851 Gdańsk, Poland, E-mail: fizlk@univ.gda.pl

-69- Basic Concepts for a Fundamental Aether Theory

Joseph Levy, 4 square Anatole France, 91250 St Germain-lès-Corbeil, France, E-mail: levy.joseph@orange.fr

-125- Aether Theory and the Principle of Relativity

Joseph Levy, 4 square Anatole France, 91250 St Germain-lès-Corbeil, France E-mail: levy.joseph@orange.fr

-139- Ether Theory of Gravitation, Why and How

Mayeul Arminjon, Laboratoire Sols, Solides, Structures, Risques, CNRS & Université de Grenoble, BP 53, F-38041, Grenoble Cedex 9 France.

-203- A Dust Universe Solution to the Dark Energy Problem

James G. Gilson, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E14NS, United Kingdom, E-mail: j.g.gilson@qmul.ac.uk

-217- Eddington Ether and Number

Raul A. Simon, LAMB, Santiago, Chile

-257- The dynamical Space-time as a Field Configuration in a Background Space-time

A.N. Petrov, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri,-Columbia, Columbia MO 65211, USA and Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Universitetskii pr., 13 Moskow 119992 Russia, E-mail: anpetrov@rol.ru

-305- Locality and Electromagnetic Momentum in Critical Tests of Special Relativity

Gianfranco Spavieri, Jesus Quintero, Arturo Sanchez, José Ayazo, Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de los Andes, Merida 5101-Venezuela, E-mail : Spavieri@ula.ve

And Georges T. Gillies Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400746, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA, E-mail: gtg@Virginia.edu

-357- Correlations Leading to Space-time Structure in an Ether

J.E. Carroll, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, United Kingdom, E.mail: jec1000@cam.ac.u

-407- Reasons for Gravitational Mass and the Problem of Quantum Gravity

V. Krasnoholovets, Institute for basic research, 90 East Winds Court, Palm Harbor, Fl 34683, USA

M. C. Duffy, School of Computing & Technology, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, Great Britain, SR1 3SD, & PO Box 342, Burnley, Lancashire, GB, BB10 1XL. michael.duffy9@btopenworld.com

The modern ether concept is compatible with relativity, quantum mechanics, and non-classical geometrization. Misuse of the term "ether" in anti-Relativity polemics in former times causes many physicists to avoid the word and equivalent terms are used instead. The modern concept results from three development programmes. First, there was the evolution of Relativity, Relativistic Cosmology and Geometrodynamics which discarded the early 20th C passive, rigid, ether in favour of geometrized space-time. A non-classical ether, defined as field or space-time, was accepted by Einstein in his later years. This had two main aspects: static (or geometric) and dynamic (or frame-space perspective). Second, there was a Lorentzian programme, which provided a quasi-classical exposition of Relativity in terms of moving rod and clock readings. The Einstein-Minkowski and the Lorentzian programmes can be reconciled. The third development programme is associated with Quantum Mechanics and studies of the physical vacuum. A group of analogues based on the vortex sponge promises to unify these programmes of interpretation. The modern ether, from the smallest scale point of view, resembles a "sea of information", which demands new techniques for interpreting it, drawn from information science, computer science, and communications theory.

Key Words: Analogues; Ether; Relativity; Space-Time Geometry; Physical Vacuum.

Ludwik Kostro Department for Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, University of Gdańsk,

ul. Bielańska 5, 80-851 Gdańsk, Poland, E-mail: fizlk@univ.gda.pl

In 1905 A. Einstein banished the ether from physics in connection with the formulation of his Special Relativity Theory. This is very well known but less known is the fact that in 1916 he reintroduced the ether in connection with his General Relativity. He denominated it “new ether” because, in opposition to the old one, the new one did not violate his Special and General Principle of Relativity. It didn’t violate it because the new ether is not conceived as a privileged reference frame but it is considered as an ultra-referential primordial material reality which is not composed of points (or particles) and not divisible in parts and to which therefore the notions of motion and rest are not applicable. The purpose of this paper is to present a short outline of the history of Einstein’s concepts on ether and to show which elements of the mathematical formalism of General Relativity were considered by Einstein as mathematical tools describing the relativistic ether, i.e. the ultra-referential space-time characterized with a certain kind of energy density. It will be indicated also that Einstein’s intuitions and ideas concerning the ultra-referential space-time have to be investigated in the framework of Connes’ non-commutative geometry, as the commutative geometries are not sufficient to do it. In Poland Michal Heller and his colleagues are trying to create an unification of General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics with the help of Connes’ non-commutative geometry.

Joseph Levy

4 square Anatole France, 91250 St Germain-lès-Corbeil, France ,

E-mail: levy.joseph@orange.fr

In the light of recent experimental and theoretical data, we go back to the studies tackled in previous publications [1] and develop some of their consequences. Some of their main aspects will be studied in further detail. Yet this text remains self- sufficient. The questions asked following these studies will be answered. The consistency of these developments in addition to the experimental results, enable to strongly support the existence of a preferred aether frame and of the anisotropy of the one-way speed of light in the Earth frame. The theory demonstrates that the apparent invariance of the speed of light results from the systematic measurement distortions entailed by length contraction, clock retardation and the synchronization procedures with light signals or by slow clock transport. Contrary to what is often believed, these two methods have been demonstrated to be equivalent by several authors [1]. The compatibility of the relativity principle with the existence of a preferred aether frame and with mass-energy conservation is discussed and the relation existing between the aether and inertial mass is investigated. The experimental space-time transformations connect co-ordinates altered by the systematic measurement distortions. Once these distortions are corrected, the hidden variables they conceal are disclosed. The theory sheds light on several points of physics which had not found a satisfactory explanation before. (Further important comments will be made in ref [1d]).

Joseph Levy

4 Square Anatole France, 91250 St Germain-lès-Corbeil, France

E. Mail: levy.joseph@orange.fr

This paper completes and comments on some aspects of our previous publications. In ref [1], we have derived a set of space-time transformations referred to as the extended space-time transformations. These transformations, which assume the existence of a preferred aether frame and the variability of the one-way speed of light in the other frames, are compared to the Lorentz-Poincaré transformations. We demonstrate that the extended transformations can be converted into a set of equations that have a similar mathematical form to the Lorentz-Poincaré transformations, but which differ from them in that they connect reference frames whose co-ordinates are altered by the systematic unavoidable measurement distortions due to length contraction and clock retardation and by the usual synchronization procedures, a fact that the conventional approaches of relativity do not show. As a result, we confirm that the relativity principle is not a fundamental principle of physics [i.e, it does not rigorously apply in the physical world when the true co-ordinates are used]. It is contingent but seems to apply provided that the distorted coordinates are used. The apparent invariance of the speed of light also results from the measurement distortions. The space-time transformations relating experimental data, therefore, conceal hidden variables which deserved to be disclosed for a deeper understanding of physics.

Mayeul Arminjon

Laboratoire “Sols, Solides, Structures, Risques”

(CNRS & Universites de Grenoble),

BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble cedex 9, France.

Gravitation might make a preferred frame appear, and with it a clear space/time separation—the latter being, a priori, needed by quantum mechanics (QM) in curved space-time. Several models of gravitation with an ether are discussed: they assume metrical effects in an heterogeneous ether and/or a Lorentz-symmetry breaking. One scalar model, starting from a semi-heuristic view of gravity as a pressure force, is detailed. It has been developed to a complete theory including continuum dynamics, cosmology, and links with electromagnetism and QM. To test the theory, an asymptotic scheme of post-Newtonian approximation has been built. That version of the theory which is discussed here predicts an internal-structure effect, even at the point-particle limit. The same might happen also in general relativity (GR) in some gauges, if one would use a similar scheme. Adjusting the equations of planetary motion on an ephemeris leaves a residual difference with it; one should adjust the equations using primary observations. The same effects on light rays are predicted as with GR, and a similar energy loss applies to binary pulsars.

James G. Gilson j.g.gilson@qmul.ac.uk

School of Mathematical Sciences

Queen Mary University of London

Mile End Road London E14NS

December 19th 2005

Astronomical measurements of the Omegas for mass density, cosmological constant lambda and curvature k are shown to be sufficient to produce a unique and detailed cosmological model describing dark energy influences based on the Friedman equations. The equation of state Pressure turns out to be identically zero at all epochs as a result of the theory. The partial omega, for dark energy, has the exact value, minus unity, as a result of the theory and is in exact agreement with the astronomer’s measured value. Thus this measurement is redundant as it does not contribute to the construction of the theory for this model. Rather, the value of omega is predicted from the theory. The model has the characteristic of changing from deceleration to acceleration at exactly half the epoch time at which the input measurements are taken. This is a mysterious feature of the model for which no explanation has so far been found. An attractive feature of the model is that the acceleration change time occurs at a red shift of approximately 0.8 as predicted by the dark energy workers. Using a new definition of dark energy density it is shown that the contribution of this density to the acceleration process is via a negative value for the gravitational constant, -G, exactly on a par with gravitational mass which occurs via the usual positive value for G.

Raúl A. Simón

LAMB, Santiago, CHILE

For Eddington, the word “ether” was synonymous with de Sitter spacetime, and as such it plays only an episodic role in his later work. Nevertheless, it is good to find out why he held such an opinion, for this leads us into most interesting physical – and not only historical – considerations. For this reason, in the present paper we have included the mathematical background necessary to make Eddington’s physics clearer. We have also included some of Eddington’s epistemological derivations of the “number of particles in the universe”, not only as a curiosity, but also as a means of understanding the general character of his later work.

Department of Physics and Astronomy,

University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA;

Sternberg Astron. Inst.,Universitetskii pr., 13

Moscow, 119992, RUSSIA; e-mail: anpetrov@rol.ru

In this review paper, general relativity (GR) is presented in the field theoretical form, where gravitational field (metric perturbations) to- gether with other physical fields are propagated in an auxiliary ei- ther curved, or flat background spacetime. Such a reformulation of GR is exact and equivalent to GR in the standard geometrical de- scription. It is actively used for study of theoretical problems and in applications. Conserved currents are constructed on the basis of a symmetrical (with respect to a background metric) total energy- momentum tensor and are expressed through divergences of anti- symmetrical tensor densities (superpotentials). This form connects local properties of perturbations with the academic imagination on the quasi-local nature of the conserved quantities in GR. The gauge invariance is studied, its properties allow to consider the problem of non-localization of energy in GR in exact mathematical expressions. The Friedmann solution for a closed world and the Schwarzschild solution are presented as field configurations in Minkowski space, properties of which are analyzed. An original modification of the field formulation of GR is given by Babak and Grishchuk. Basing on this they have modified GR itself. The resulting theory includes \massive terms" describing spin-2 and spin-0 gravitons with non-zero masses. We present and discuss their results. It is shown that all the local weak-field predictions of the massive theory are in agreement with experimental data. Otherwise, the exact non-linear equations of the new theory eliminate the black hole event horizons and replace a permanent power-law expansion of the homogeneous isotropic uni- verse with an oscillator behavior.

José Ayazo

Centro de Física Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes,

Mérida, 5101-Venezuela (spavieri@ula.ve).

George T. Gillies

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,

University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400746,

Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA (gtg@virginia.edu).

In this review of recent tests of special relativity it is shown that the elec- tromagnetic momentum plays a relevant role in various areas of classical and quantum physics. Crucial tests on the locality of Faraday’s law for “open” currents, on a modifed Trouton-Noble experiment, on nonconservation of mechanical angular momentum, on the force on the magnetic dipole, and on a reciprocal Rowland.s experiment are outlined. Electromagnetic momentum provides a link also between quantum non local effects and light propagation in moving media. Since light waves in moving media behave as matter waves in nonlocal quantum effects, the flow of the medium does affect the phase ve- locity of light, but not necessarily the momentum of photons. Thus, Fizeau’s experiment is not suitable for testing the addition of velocities of special rel- ativity. A crucial, non-interferometric experiment for the speed of photons in moving media, is described.

PACS: 03.30.+p, 03.65.Ta, 42.15.-i

KEYWORDS: electromagnetic momentum, Faraday’s law, nonlocality,

light in moving media.

J. E. Carroll

Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ E-mail: jec1000@cam.ac.uk

It is proposed that the ether behaves like a coordinate invariant system. By using the general theory of signals in systems, the paper describes a formalism similar to quantum theory, provides a rationale for Lagrangian methods and also discovers how geometric structures naturally form. From the concepts of convolution and correlation used in linear systems it is shown that the multi-vectors of the ‘Hestenes’ geometric algebra correspond with generalised correlation matrices that link an observer’s view of even and odd properties of incoming signals in the ether system. The analysis shows why three spatial dimensions is the lowest dimensionality to give a homogeneous space. Any fourth dimension, even if it were not time, has to behave differently from the other three spatial dimensions and cannot create a homogeneous space. A more speculative approach suggests that 3+1 space-time is embedded in a 3+3 space-time ether. Elsewhere it has been shown that Maxwell’s equations could be construed as a necessary consequence of this embedding process, while here a Dirac equation with vector potentials emerges from similar assumptions. Mass is created by correlations in a temporal plane that is transverse to the temporal axis. Future prospects for this generalised theory are discussed.

Volodymyr Krasnoholovets

Institute for Basic Research, 90 East Winds Court, Palm Harbor, FL 34683, USA

The problem of quantum gravity is treated from a radically new viewpoint based on a detailed mathematical analysis of what the constitution of physical space is, which has been curried out by Michel Bounias and the author. The approach allows the introduction of the notion of mass as a local deformation of space regarded as a tessellation lattice of founding elements, topological balls, whose size is estimated as the Planck one. The interaction of a moving particle-like deformation with the surrounding lattice of space involves a fractal decomposition process that supports the existence and properties of previously postulated inerton clouds as associated to particles. The cloud of inertons surrounding the particle spreads out to a range υλ/c=Λ from the particle where υ and c are velocities of the particle and light, respectively, and λ is the de Broglie wavelength of the particle. Thus the particle’s inertons return the real sense to the wave ψ-function as the field of inertia of the moving particle. Since inertons transfer fragments of the particle mass, they play also the role of carriers of gravitational properties of the particle. The submicroscopic concept has been verified experimentally, though so far in microscopic and intermediate ranges.

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INSTRUCTIONS TO CONTRIBUTORS TO FUTURE VOLUMES

Authors who are familiar with the modern ether concepts and who have founded ideas about the nature and the properties of the ether should follow the publishing project given in the PIRT programme for 2008.

Review papers which give an overview of the development of the ether concept through time, or present the ideas of a physicist who has significantly contributed to the ether theory, can also be submitted.

Papers can be submitted by E-mail.*

Papers submitted for publication in the forthcoming volumes of “Ether space-time and cosmology” should obey the following technical instructions:

The papers should be preferably submitted in Word format.

Papers submitted directly in Tex Latex or PDF can be accepted provided that they strictly obey the following rules and that they are not numbered.

The number of pages should not exceed 60 or 65 pages

The size of the texts (written part) excluding page numbers should be about 185X135 cm. It is important to respect this format.

The font should be Times new roman of size 11 point for the main text.

Authors are requested not to begin their text with a table of contents.

The figures can be placed anywhere, they should be neat with letters easily legible when printed.

(A resolution of 300 ppi minimum is generally needed to obtain neat figures and is recommended if possible).

Only black and white colours are admitted.

The figures should be numbered and briefly explained by a caption.

The space above the title should be about 6.5 cm when printed in a format A4 page.

The title of the papers should be in Times new roman in boldface and size 14 font.

The references should be put at the end of the papers.

Papers accepted for publication will be numbered by the editors.

Papers formatted in PDF must be embedded by the authors.

Papers formatted in Word will be converted in PDF and embedded by the editors.

Contributions to future volumes should be sent to :-

Dr J Levy <levy.joseph@orange.fr>

Dr M C Duffy <michael.duffy9@btopenworld.com>

Dr V Krasnoholovets <krasnoh@iop.kiev.ua>

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