[Next year 2005, the first centenary of the birth of Special Relativity (SR) will be recorded, and quite surely a conformist chorus of appreciation will raise to heaven, in celebration of the most famous creature of the "greatest scientist of XX century" (and perhaps more!). Quite on the contrary, we have the persuasion* that this anniversary should be commemorate more with mourning than with delight, and that it is rather instructive Friedwardt Winterberg when remarking** that the very promising attempts to investigate aether's structure at the end of XIX century: <<were brought to an abrupt end by Einstein's rejection of the ether and its replacement by his well-known postulates>>. We explicitly add that Einstein should share the "blame" with those Göttingen mathematicians which contributed to the promotion of the new physical theory, immediately realising that an "abstract" unconventional physics would have well served their anti-Kantian philosophical conceptions, regarding the foundations of mathematics (thereafter of the whole science) as separated by ordinary intuition ("common sense")***. For this reason Episteme is glad to present to his readers a glimpse on a possible alternative physics, that is to say, an example of a rational path to "natural philosophy", along the unique apparently practicable way: the rediscovery of the Cartesian conception of physical space as an active physical medium, endowed with detectable (and presumably exploitable) physical properties.
* Which was often expressed, as the
II volume of Episteme N. 6, wholly dedicated to a criticism of SR,
** "The Goal Towards Unified Theory of Elementary Particles and the Ether Hypothesis", in Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory, Proceedings, London, 1988.
*** David Hilbert, in a note to Hugo Andres Krüss of the Berlin Kultusministerium (1913), introduced SR in order to emphasise: <<how close mathematics and physics have grown and how these two sciences depend on each other. While previously mathematics occasionally considered isolated problems from physics and then only treated them in the abstract, mathematical sense, and while physics mostly asked from mathematics only technical rules for calculations or formal methods of calculation, both sciences have coalesced into a single scientific field>> (from Lewis Pyenson, The Young Einstein - The advent of relativity, Adam Hilger Ltd, Bristol and Boston, 1985, p. 184).
The Editorial Staff of Episteme.]
* * * * *
The decision to abandon the quest leading to the discovery of the characters of an hypothetical substance called Ether was unfortunately a bad one: the advance of the theoretical side of modern Physics during the last hundred years has been unduly retarded as a direct consequence of this choice. I set my mind to discover the property of this substance and incontrovertibly demonstrate its existence. Using mathematical tools and the extant knowledge in this field, I discovered beyond any possibility of doubt, the proof of the existence of the Ether - which I renamed Energized Space Fabric (ESF). The results - which will be collected in a volume of next publication - are a set of formulations leading to simple solutions for many of the most formidable problems in Science, especially in Dynamics.
1) The existence in space of a substance in particular pristine status as pure mass endowed with a maximum of energy amount per unit of volume, though it presents itself as "ethereal", and the space appears to us apparently devoid of any substance. This is a prime element occupying the Euclidean space and therefore defining it, since Euclidean space void of any substance has a place only in our imagination.
2) The formulation of a new Universal Law encompassing the present existing ones i.e. joining the Universal Law of Gravitation of Sir I. Newton and the Law of equivalence inside a volume occupied by mass-energy in the status of Heavy Mass, of given density, to mass-energy in the status of work, as formulated by Prof. A. Einstein.
3) The affirmation that the Laws ruling the Universal reality are of Physical nature and can be explained following traditional classical mental processes, without recourse to abstruse mathematical theories. Mathematics must be intended as a tool helping the formation of our mental processes. They must not superimpose themselves to the nature of things, which by necessity follow the sequence of cause and effect. Furthermore, they must not force us to put aside our mental processes which are able to understand cause and effect, since otherwise we would become helpless, and forced to accept dubious dogmatic-abstract information sold off as knowledge.
4) The test of the new theory is based on its ability to give simple answers, and therefore understandable, to many physical problems, though unfortunately not to all of them (for example, up to date I have very little clues as to explain electromagnetic phenomena).
5) The complete cycle of the transformation of the mass endowed of energy is explained in a convincing manner, and the present way of thinking will result then affected by this explanation (since the said cycle is purely based on relations of cause and effect). The theory asserts that there is only a main basic Universal transformation, causing the gravity, and that to this transformation there are connected directly or indirectly all the other concurrent transformations happening in the Universe.
6) How a large mass becomes a star, and how the energy comes out from a mass endowed with energy as dissipation, are physical phenomena explained through formulations similar to those connected with the phenomenon represented by a transformation inside a mass resting on the top of a larger one, and with the one represented by a transformation happening inside a mass in orbit around a larger one (producing also precession). Even the bending of a beam of light under the effect caused by the presence of a Large Gravitational Mass (LGM) is part of the same set of formulations.
7) Presence of natural accumulation of mass endowed with energy in a state in which the next transformation is going by necessity to be dissipation. This could represent an attractive situation in case we could be able to induce dissipation, due to the fact that thermodynamic devices can absorb mass-energy in dissipation, and then can upgrade part of it by transforming it into movement (work).
8) The so called time dilation effect is deprived of all paradoxical characteristics surrounding it until now, and it is explained by means of intuitive simple reasoning.
9) The formula of the increase of inertial mass, and the tendency of the mass to reach infinite values, with the increase of speed, that brings the speed close to the speed of light, as stated by Prof. A. Einstein, is expanded to non relativistic situations and becomes one of the pillars of this new theory.
10) The three laws of movement given by Sir I. Newton are revisited and made understandable through the introduction of a theory of impulse; the same happens for the concepts of opposing forces (the introduction of dominant or prevalent force and opposing force very much accepted today explains nothing unless the underlying physical-dynamical phenomenon has been clearly explained).
11) Features of trajectories followed by masses affected by gravitation are explained in function of physical transformations affecting these masses. These trajectories are approximated with simple mathematical curves if we overlook these transformations, but then the underlying effect of transformation in the mass results impervious to be understood.
12) Thermodynamics seen from the point of view of mass transformations, consisting of changes of status of existence of the mass and of degradations and partial upgrades of the energy belonging to the mass, can be better explained if the theoretical dynamics of masses endowed with energy and the transformations-degradations undergone by mass-energy are better understood and explained, an aim allowed by this theory.
13) The precession of a mass in orbit around a LGM (Large Gravitational Mass) is an Universal phenomenon, and as such it is ruled by an Universal Law. The precessional phenomenon is the key leading to the understanding and the formulation of the new theory above mentioned, since it cannot occur unless we postulate the presence of ESF filling the Euclidean space. I will show in due course how this Universal Law was unfortunately missed by my predecessors.
14) Devices using phenomena of energy degradation in order to obtain partial upgrades are thermodynamic devices in principle but are not restricted to our inventive capabilities since nature has developed natural devices able to do so: by definition these natural devices are endowed with life.
15) One dramatic advance has been the development of the graphic of compressions representing a tool in which I could concentrate many of the properties of the new found Entity, namely the ESF. In the ESF there are visualised many phenomena and formulations, as for example the real meaning of the kinetic energy of a mass, the manner in which it develops, and its relations with the energy internal to the mass (fall of a material body, etc.). With the use of this graphic the concepts and the formulations of contraction and expansion are also easier to visualise.
16) Generation of Heat through impact and friction; consideration about the way matter is assembling together; presence of modular units of mass-energy; presence of undetectable material particles; resonance at internal atomic and molecular level; existence of Black Holes; formulation of physical-mathematical tools in order to produce similitude to real physical phenomena; etc..
The list could be carried on, but I stop here for the moment. The only
comment I can add is that the treatment of the subject as it is at present
has just begun, since from my present effort I am sure that many advances
will follow. I am confident as well that, although at present no electromagnetic
theory is tied up with this one which can be defined gravitational, in
the next future the introduction of the concept of ESF will show itself
very useful in order to achieve results regarding electromagnetism and
further unification, since this theory contains already a good amount of
truth and a certain degree of unification.
* * * * *
An example of application of this theory: the study of precessional phenomena
In the theory developed by Sir I.N. we had that a planet moving around a LGM travels along an elliptic orbit, whose equation is a solution of a differential equation:
for and u = 1/r.
The term p, the semilatum rectum, is a constant made up of two other constants (a, the semiaxis major, and the eccentricity e of the elliptic orbit). We see then that also the term 1/p is a constant.
In the general theory of relativity the equation of motion supplied is:
where h is the angular momentum or twice the areal velocity, and it is a constant as well:
h = v(r)r = v(p)p. It follows that
are both constant positive terms. But now the differential equation (2) does not have any more an elliptic curve as a solution, like in the case of Newtonian gravitation theory. The solution instead is a curve resembling a cycloid, very close to an ellipse, whose perihelion at every period undergoes a slow angular precession.
From the above presentation a is a positive constant value and 2p a is the orbital advance in metres per revolution of the perihelion over the circle described by the semiaxis minor, and it agrees with practical observations (it is the value of orbital advance obtained at perihelion by the Astronomers). Therefore, dividing 2p a by the period T, we get that
is a constant value, representing the orbital advance in metres per second. Moreover, the term
is the average value of angular advance per second (since the real value should be
D w (r) = D L/r). It follows then that the value supplied through the Theory of relativity is:
Under these circumstances the formulation in (2) is mathematically justified, but how the orbital advance has been obtained remains a matter of guess. The term GM that was present in the Newtonian equation of the elliptic orbit is still present in the third term of equation (2), and its presence is extended in the expression of a corresponding to the same equation (2), but why the term c2 at the denominator in the expression of a as shown before?
We think that the previous argument is an educated attempt, in which constants have been conveniently introduced, in order to obtain the required value for precession, but there is not a physical theory to support it! Starting from the basic assumption in formula (2) for an orbit perfectly circular (e = 0), and due to the fact that for e = 0 then r =1/u = const implies that the semilatus rectum will be also p = r = 1/u = const, as a consequence the formula (2) becomes:
which can hold only for a = 0. Therefore for a perfectly circular orbit the angular precession should be: . But as we know a has been assumed to be positive, and it is made up of constants and therefore is invariable, and as we can see from the previous expression of a it is supposed to give a value D w which remains positive for r = 1/u = const and e = 0 (circular orbit). The incongruence in (4) shows that the relativistic formulation is an adaptation ad hoc made only for Mercury, and valid only for that value of precession: it fails when we try to generalise it. Of course then, when we put e = 0 inside the value of D w in (3), still results a value a > 0 which is not justified in the (4) above, in which for e = 0 should absolutely be
a = 0. We get instead a value , why? Ad altri l'ardua sentenza.
If the equation (2) is discarded in favour of the acceptation of the presence of a phenomenon of precession in the circular orbit in the way already described (i.e., existence of a cyclical contraction of the radius due to presence of transformation-degradation inside the mass affected which is induced by the presence of opposite forces), and we assume that in the elliptic orbit, for small values of eccentricity (including the eccentricity of Mercury), we have a value of the precession almost equal (almost invariable) to the one of the circular orbit, in the 3) substituting p to: , which by the way is a value approximating p , then we obtain for the precession:
This expression contains (a geometric value) the average cyclical contraction 2dr':
that represents the sum of the number n (unknown frequency) of cyclical contractions 2dr'n of period T in fractions of seconds of the orbital average radius, for which n T =1. Therefore:
according to the theory I developed (see below (6)), which takes into account the presence of ESF, and of a phenomenon of energy transformation always present in any orbital revolution connected to it and many more other things. In this way the geometric movement of the mass is tied up, as it should be, to a dynamic phenomenon or transformation consisting of change of status of the mass and degradation of the energy:
which gives a value of precession, and:
Under these assumptions precession is a phenomenon tied up with a transformation triggered by the main gravitational one, and it is common to all the planets orbiting around Large Gravitational Masses (LGMs). The previous formulation results valid for near circular and circular orbits, and what in the planet Mercury looks to be a large value of eccentricity does not affect very much the formulation of the precession values.
When we have a situation like we do have in Mercury, nothing stops us to describe the phenomenon in the way it has been done by Prof. Einstein, but when the orbit loses its eccentricity we must be aware that, although it becomes almost impossible at present level of technical knowledge to observe the "precession of the perihelion" (in the case of a perfectly circular orbit, a perihelion does not even exist!), then the precession of the orbit does still exist, and produces a phenomenon resulting in the presence of a constant velocity v' = 2p dr' of the same nature of the orbital velocity vo, and to be added to it (for the Earth, according to our calculations, the precession should be about 4.02" in a hundred years).
We see that precession that here is examined in orbits of small eccentricity, is the result of the contact reaction of the opposing forces acting over a mass having elastic characteristics. Since the Universal reality consists of mass-energy alone, the force can only be the result of a phenomenon affecting the mass-energy, in a condition that we define Heavy Mass (HM). In this case, internal force or impulse acting on the mass HM is produced by the presence of depression in the ESF, since the LGM that absorbs ESF (Energized Space Fabric) causes inside it the presence of a depression field. As a consequence, the HM can be present inside this field of depression only in two different ways:
1) it can be at rest on the top of the external surface of the LGM (which by the way is also mass HM);
2) it can orbit around the LGM (we consider here nearly circular or perfectly circular orbits).
In both cases the depression present in the ESF coexisting with the mass is causing internal tendency of a small amount (D HM/sec) of the mass HM in the status of Heavy Mass to unbundle into ES or mass in the status of Work (from Tons to kJ), whilst the energy belonging to the mass (D HM/sec) is degraded; in this way we have that the appearance inside the HM of this transformation (of a D HM into a D ES) is concurrent with the appearance of internal force or impulse acting on the HM, developing in it a tendency to move.
Force cannot exist if there is not a transformation (external or internal to the mass) causing pressure, or releasing difference of compression that produces either movement or deformation or both, in the affected mass.
In the above cases (both gravitational) (1) and (2), we are in two particular situations of impediment of movement since the driving force just described (the Newtonian force originated, into the mass HM, by the gravitational phenomenon of absorption of ESF) is opposed by forces of different nature, and in consequence of the reaction to these forces (one is the contact force, and the other the force generated by the opposition of the ESF to change of direction of the orbital velocity) the mass is subjected to different internal values of change of status of the mentioned D HM/sec (power of internal transformation).
This change of status happens inside the mass HM and does not affect its inertial and gravitational properties. Therefore, as consequence, in normal orbital conditions there produces a phenomenon which does not appear to our observation, since it evolves entirely inside the mass which is able to contain it, but the mass in orbit is subjected to a cyclical expansion (vibration) whilst the phenomenon occurs. An expansion of no little importance, whose effect is a cyclical oscillation 2dr'n of its centre of mass, in which we call dr'n the striction of the orbit over a period T, run under the effect of the driving force. Because the centre of the mass moving at the orbital velocity v0 is propelled cyclically towards the larger one (LGM), a small increment must then be detracted from the expected radial position. This implies that we have precession, since the mass is moving at constant velocity v0, but is subject to an oscillation of frequency n and amplitude 2dr'n of its centre, whose position varies from r to r-2dr'n , and then finds itself in average at a reduced radial distance r-dr'n (from the original one r). Whilst, still thanks to the above mentioned vibration of the mass, a fixed amount (D HM/sec) of Real Mass(RM) inside the mass HM is subjected to an effect called unbundling that transforms RM into ES (which is still mass-energy contained inside the mass having still Mass Characters, but results from degradation of energy as RM and is on a status, measurable in kJ or units of work, in which it is possible to induce degradation of it as dissipation).
Note: we can call this particular status of the ES also ESCM (Energized Space having Characters of Mass).
We approximate orbits of small eccentricity to perfectly circular ones and for them we calculate the two effects of the phenomenon (consisting of constant advance in time along the orbital path whilst a continuous internal transformation of RM into ES or ESCM takes place).
The total internal power transformation, from RM into compressed ES, of the Mass resting on the top of a LGM, can be expressed by a force or impulse subjected to a cyclic displacement of its ideal point of application, which is the barycentre of the mass, and whose amplitude is
2drn where n is the frequency (of unknown value but which for our calculations it is not necessary to know). Therefore for a mass M resting on the top of a LGM it will be:
We see that mn is the general formula of internal transformation valid for a displacement of amplitude 2drn , which happens over a period of time dt = 1/n = T, where n is the unknown frequency. A cycle of vibration represents Power over a period of time 1/n variable and unknown. Therefore the Power or the amount of internal transformation per second will have the following expression:
The previous expression represents the sum of the of Energies internally transformed in T=1/n seconds over a time interval of n T = 1 sec, when a mass is at rest over a LGM.
Note: the value found for this drn over a period T (which is an effect of elastic nature that we call striction over a period T), over an interval of time of one second, for the case 1) of a mass resting on the top of a LGM, is equal to:
(6) , or striction over one second (the striction over one second is then by definition n times the striction over the period T, namely dr = n drn).
Below we have chosen to describe at last the physical phenomenon of precession, because we intend to develop a formulation of the phenomenon affecting the mass during the running of an orbit, and afterwards to compare the values obtained with the use of this theory with the ones which are really observed.
When we consider an object in orbit around a LGM, case 2), things are changing since the Space depression originating the Newtonian force and therefore the tendency of the Mass to move towards the centre of the LGM, thanks to the presence of an orbital velocity of opportune value, is opposed by the resistance (force) opposed to the Mass to change direction of its velocity in the ESF. In this way it is originated a revolution into an orbital trajectory (that for convenience we consider to be a circle of radius r).
Also in this case the presence of these two opposing tendencies to radial movement on the elastic Mass will produce an internal transformation of RM into ES inside the Mass in movement along its orbital trajectory, whose value is proportional to the gravitational force for a factor 2dr' (the displacement which has been already described), whose value will in this case be represented by:
(this represents an amplification of the value v0 obtained for the mass resting on the top of the LGM; the striction in this case is dr'n for a period T, and consequently the striction over one second is dr' = n dr'n).
In other words it appears that in presence of an orbital movement the apparently virtual displacement per second of the Mass in orbit is not exactly of purely mathematical nature (like the one used in the various theories of virtual works in Building Sciences), but it consists of a real elastic pulse (that can be attributed to the centre of the mass in orbital movement), inducing the presence of an extra velocity approximately directed on the same direction of v0:
v' = 2p dr', of the same nature of the orbital velocity and to be added to it: v0+v'. This corresponds to an advancement of the planet in its orbit.
In this case the similar formula for the object resting on the top of a gravitational mass is irrelevant; this formula will instead reveal itself very important when dealing with the energy transformation affecting the entire gravitational mass, which in that case will involve transformation of large amounts of RM into ES.
Note: for a LGM (like in the case of the Sun) this ES internally transformed cannot be retained by the mass in whose interior it is developed, and it is coming out as dissipation (radiation of SP Speeding Particles).
We assume that the perturbation of the mass in orbit follows a sinusoidal function, therefore the cycle of frequency n and amplitude 2dr'n , consisting of a vibration in orbit of the centre of the mass directed towards the centre of the LGM, corresponds to a power of transformation
Pn = F2dr'n for t = 1/n . And for t=1 sec: Power = F2dr' kJ/sec, which represents the value of internal transformation of RM in ES per second, and expressed in equivalent value of units of mass transformed per second inside Mercury is:
Thus the value obtained for the planet Mercury will be:
F = 6.673* e-8* 0.32* e21* 2* e27/(5.582* e10)2 = 1.26* e19 kN
dr' = ½478873/c2 = 6.1* e-4 m/sec
D M = 1.26* e19* 2* 6.1* e-4/9* e16 = 0.170 Tons/sec (value of internal unbundling).
Corresponding to an internal transformation of a D M/sec of the mass from the status of RM to the status of ES (and corresponding degradation of the energy belonging to the mass), for an unitary mass of the planet Mercury, expressed in kJ per second:
D E = 1.26* e19* 2* 6.1* e-4/0.32* e21 = 4.8* e-5 kJ/Tons* sec.
Mass-energy transformed in 4.5 Billion Years inside one Ton and inside one kg mass:
E4.5 BY/Ton = 4.8* e- 5* 4.5* e9* 365* 86400 = 6.8* e12 kJ/Tons = 6.8* e12 J/kg.
Expressed in kWh/kg, this will be:
EkWh/kg = 6.8* e12/3.6* e6 = 1.89* e6 kWh/kg.
If we were able to extract this accumulated amount of ES , for a suggested value of 35 c of Rand per kWh, then 1 kg mass of the planet Mercury would be worth an equivalent amount of up to: 1.89* e6* 0.35 » 662,000 Rand/kg.
Expressed in Euro, this value would be 283,000/8.2 » 80,000-00 Euro/kg.
Note: this exercise obviously doesn't represent a real money value, it is just intended to point out that there exist a potential reserve of pure mass-energy as ES that has not been separated by the mass, but is present in it in a very desirable status (it is the glue between the modules of RM, which are neutrons and the couples proton-electron). On the Earth, mass containing a large amount of this glue can be subjected to fission, and on Mercury there could be presence of heavy atoms in amounts larger than on Earth. If then we were able to extract the fissionable ones through mining and refining (since it is mass-energy in a desirable status inside the mass HM), it would represent a wealth whose maximum value in Rand could be as indicated.
Finally, the amplitude 2dr'n of the cyclical elastic vibration as assumed (whose sum is 2dr'/sec) is causing in the orbit a real advancement per second:
dL = 2p v0dr = 2p dr' per second, or dL = v' m/sec, to be added to the orbital velocity.
For the planet Mercury and for a 100 years period of time:
dL100YRS = 2p dr'* 100* 365* 86400 = 1.2086* e7 m/(100yrs).
The precession in radiant over 100 years:
a rad = dL100yrs/R = 1.2086* e7/5.82* e10 = 2.0766* e-4 rad.
The precession in seconds of circumference divided in degrees minutes and seconds:
a '' = 2.0766* e-4* 360* 60* 60/2p = 42.8",
a value which does correspond with the really observed value.
Note: this phenomenon of precession represents a transformation that happens under the effect of the driving force of gravity, so that we can assume safely elastic cyclic deformations all directed towards the centre.
Note: the energy unbundled must be by necessity stored inside the mass as ES, since as said if it was coming out it would represent a large amount of Power in kJ/(m2sec) or kW/m2 (as dissipation). For the planet Mercury:
Power = F2dr'/A (RM) = 1.26* e19* 2* 6.1* e-4/(4p * (2.42* e6)2) = 208 kW/m2.
This is a very large value indeed, since the radiation reaching Earth
at equator from the Sun at maximum exposition is a mere 1.4 KW/m2.
- - - - -
Antonio Ruggeri was born in Rome, in 1940. After secondary scientific studies, he graduated in Rome as Civil Engineer in Hydraulics. Soon afterwards he emigrated in the Republic of South Africa where today he is still resident. After a period spent in learning to communicate in English, and in which he made himself appreciated through his capacity to tackle problems of increasing difficulty in the Engineering field, he was then employed by a large parastatal Corporation, whose only purpose was, and still it is up today, the supply of purified water to most of the entire Province nowadays called Gauteng, enclosing the Greater Johannesburg and part of Pretoria. In 1977 he improved the existing primary system of treatment of raw water with the invention of the spiral flocculators (see picture below) and devised sedimentation tanks of appropriate design, never used before on such a large scale works. He was also responsible for the structural design. Since 1977 the works were so highly successful that they underwent three upgrades using the same invention and design with almost no alterations from the original. These works actually supply a population of more than ten million people in an highly industrialized area. In the years he registered patents related to new application on the field of spiral flocculators and can rightly claim to be an expert in this type of activity; he also patented not long ago a new system of building particularly adapt to economic houses for impoverished communities. Lately, having reached a certain degree of economic independence and security, he started to direct his interests to the problem of the knowledge, in which he reckons to have also well done, since he claims to have definitively proved the existence of an entity inside the Euclidean space through the development of a Theory and formulations that are marvellously connected one to the other. He also presents his Update of the Universal Law of Gravity that includes the results attributable to Sir Isaac Newton and Prof. Albert Einstein, and revolutionary interpretation of various phenomena including precession. The ensuing theory encompasses a new Science in the field of Engineering, called Universal Dynamics, that includes all the Engineering Sciences and new geometrical conceptions.