Geography and Numerics of Eden, Kharsag
and Paradise: Sumerian and Enochian Sources
Versus the Genesis Tale

(Emilio Spedicato)


Abstract - In two papers [1,2] we have analyzed the geographical data referring to the Garden of Eden, the place where according to Genesis the "first" human couple of Adam and Eve was "created". We concluded that the biblical data were satisfied by identifying the Garden of Eden with the Hunza valley in northern Pakistan. In this paper we consider the geographical information in Genesis concerning the place of "creation" in Sumerian sources and in the books of Enoch. We conclude that such data are consistent with our previous identification, extending moreover the information pertaining to the region around the Hunza valley and providing a new interpretation of what the mythical underworld might have been. We end with a review of possible meanings of the "gods" and "creation" stories, within the catastrophic quantavolutionary view of the evolution of the solar system and of mankind in the period circa 12.000 BC to circa 700 BC, given by Velikovsky [3], De Grazia [4], De Grazia and Milton [5] and Ackerman [7,8].

1. Introduction

In two previous papers [1,2] we have analyzed the geographical data in Genesis about the Garden of Eden ( GAN in Hebrew, paradeisos in the Septuaginta Greek version of the 3rd century BC, a word of Persian origin meaning "walled garden"). Such data are the following:

Our thesis in [1,2] was that a location does indeed exist on earth where all the above geographical details are satisfied. Such a location seems to have escaped attention of all previous people involved with the problem of the geography of Eden (albeit we suspect that our proposed location may have been known to the Ismaelites or to the Druses and be part of their still amply secret doctrine). In [2] we have therefore criticized some serious attempts, e.g. by Rohl [9] and by Salibi [10], to locate the Garden of Eden elsewhere (respectively in eastern Anatolia or in south-western Arabia).

Our interpretation of the Genesis geographical data is as follows:

The other geographical details are identified as follows: In the following sections we will look to the geographical information on the place of "creation" that is available in several Sumerian texts, and, with reference to the "paradise", in the books of Enoch. The Sumerian texts either have come to us directly as texts predating Moses, the traditional author of Genesis, active, according to Velikovsky [13], in the 15th century BC, or in later texts, e.g. from the library of Assurbanipal, 7th century BC, that are more or less accurate Akkadian transcriptions of older Sumerian documents. The books of Enoch, expunged from the set of canonical sacred books by the Christian Church in the 4th century AD, were previously accepted and generally greatly estimated by the Church fathers (they are even now part of the Canon of the Ethiopian church). These books in their present version are dated usually at the second century BC. It is likely that such a date just refers to the surviving versions, where an ancient obsolete language was modernized. They were indeed considered, e.g. by St Augustin, as works of "hoary antiquity" and they do in fact deal with prediluvian events, about which only intriguing hints may be found in Genesis. That several texts dealing with very ancient events were once in circulation to be later completely lost, also follows from references in the Pentateuch to vanished books, e.g. The wars of Jahweh.

We will consider in the next section the geographical data in the Sumerian creation texts, claiming that they are compatible with the geographic setting of Eden obtained from the Genesis data. The new sources provide elements that enrich our proposed scenario. Among the results that we obtain:

2. Geographical information from Sumerian sources on Eden

We have looked at several Sumerian-Akkadian sources on the "creation" event and its location, including the following ones:

Except for the cylinder of Nippur, we have used the translations in B&K.

The Sumerian story of the creation is much more complex, structured and informative than the story in Genesis. Here it is not the place for a thorough comparison of the two stories. For the further discussion, here we state our working hypothesis that the ancient documents that we consider are based upon real events, whose memory has survived, albeit with transmission errors in the oral and written versions and in the choice of the words. We will strive to find the invariant and significant elements surviving in the texts. With the specific reference to the differences between Genesis and the Sumerian-Akkadian text, our opinion is that the two stories refer basically to the same event, but from the point of view of two distinct lines of transmission: the line of the descendents of Adam and Eve, who survived the Flood in the eastern Anatolia region of Urartu, and the line of the descendants of the prediluvian Sumerians, who before the Flood lived in cities in Central Asia (in another work [21] we have argued that the mount Nimush where Utnapishtim/Ziusudra survived should be identified with the Anye Machen massif, near the sources of the Yellow River). In other terms, it is our belief that Moses did not borrow the creation story from contacts with the Mesopotamian civilization. We think that this story was a common heritage of the descendants of Abraham, thus known not only by the Hebrews but also by the Madianites, where Moses spent many years (the Madianites were most probably descendants of Madian, son of Abraham and Keturah; Jethru, father in law of Moses, lived in Arabia near the city now called Medina, once called Yathrib, a city possibly founded by Madian).

The Sumerian creation story starts with the arrival in a certain place of a group of beings of "divine" nature, the Anunnaki (a word variously interpreted as the great sons of light, the great sons of Anu), with higher knowledge and technical skill than man. The region where they settle lies amid mountains and is called Kursag, also read Kharsag. In this word kur means "mountain", sag according to B&K has no clear meaning, while according to O&O should mean lofty enclosure, close in meaning to the Genesis gan or paradise= walled enclosure.

The gods descending on Kharsag are a structured group, consisting, from Enuma Elish, of 600 members of the lower Igigi group, of 50 "great gods" and of 7 high chiefs, the gods of destiny. The Igigi appear to be divided sometimes between 300 located at the "sky" and 300 at the "Apsu". The chief of the Anunnaki in the "sky" region is Enlil, whose name means " Lord of the sky" and also, according to O&O, " Lord of cultivation"). The lord of the Apsu is Enki, whose name means lord of the lowland, and who is a brother of Enlil. A sister of Enlil, living in Kharsag, is Ninlin or Ninkarsag; she plays a fundamental role in the creation of ullu, the modern man. Finally we should quote the father of Enlil, Enki and Ninlin, namely the supreme chief of the gods, Anu. He lives far away "in the sky", but appears at Kharsag on special occasions.

In Karsag the Anunnaki become involved in a special project, namely the attempt to make water easily available for agricultural purposes by building canals and in particular by damming a local river. This work is the task of the Igigi, who spend many years on it, without being able to complete it. Tired of a work that they find too heavy, the Igigi rebel against Enlil. To quash the rebellion, Enlil, Enki and Ninlil decide to "create" man, to help in the heavy work of water management and in the agricultural activities. Man is therefore created as a worker, to be compensated with the fruits of the soil. It is intriguing to observe here how, according to Pettinato [23], the signs of the zodiac were known by the Sumerians well before they appeared in the other western sources, all with the same name as today, except the first one: aries is a wrong translation, explained by a little difference in the cuneiform script, of the Sumerion words ullu hunga, meaning salaried man. While Pettinato puts the origin of this term at the beginning of an economy where people would be hired for a salary, one might possibly consider also the hypothesis of a reference to the ullu created in Kharsag, subject to work in change of free vegetarian meals … thus instead of Aries the first sign should be the sign of the first man.

The creation of man, decided by Enlil, is implemented with a complex process well different from the process described in Genesis (but see O&O for a radically different translation of Genesis than the one usually given). The "creation" is realized by a group of Anunnaki, under the direction of Ninlil and with the important help of Enki. The process involves using some vital material from one specially selected male Anunnaki, named Weila in the Atrahasis, Xingu in the Enuma Elish (VI,33), and results in the creation of seven couples. The specific details of the creation are called, in the Bilingual Text ) B&K, text 39), "a secret doctrine, that can be spoken only by experts". A very important feature of the created man from a theological point of view and definitely going beyond anything stated in Genesis, is contained in the following three lines of Atrahasis, Karsap-Aya text, lines 215-217, B&K p. 571, our English version:

Thanks to the divine flesh ,
a spirit will be alive in man,
that will be alive even after his death.

In the Sumerian texts man continues to work with the gods for a substantial amount of time; no reference is made to a couple being expelled from Kharsag. Kharsag becomes apparently a settlement of model agriculture, with a dam and irrigation canals, various buildings including the palace of Enlil, the Ekur, breeding of animals (sheep, goat, cows) and rich orchards (quite curiously the Nippur cylinder, plate 4, claims that some "heavenly" fruit trees could not be cultivated successfully). The settlement thrives, disregarding some problems and fightings among the Anunnaki, for over a couple of thousand years. According to the Atrahasis a first crisis comes after less than 1200 years from "creation", when an epidemics devastates the settlement. The second crisis comes again less than 1200 years after the epidemics, being the Flood to which Ziusudra-Utnapishtim are survivors. The interval between the creation and the Flood is thus given at circa 2300 years, which agrees very well with the estimate obtainable from the Septuaginta (the time when the first ten Patriarchs, from Adam to Noah, lived is circa 2600 years; since Noah outlived the Flood by about 300 years the estimates are close).

It is not here the place to comment in detail the creation story, see Appendix 2 for a brief discussion of possible interpretations.

We now look at the geographical information that can be gleaned from the Sumerian texts. We should point out that our investigation is by no means exhaustive.

We will discuss later from the Enoch texts geographical evidence pointing to two great and special mountains that dominate the Hunza valley from both sides of the river. We will now look at other geographical features, associated with Kharsag but lying at some distance.

The main region associated with Kharsag and generally with the prediluvian world is the Apsu, under the control of Enki. Here are some of the features of the Apsu; additional ones could certainly be obtained by a fuller search of the Sumerian literature:

The second geographical region associated with the Kharsag is the underworld, where the goddess Ereshkigal, sister of Enlil and Enki, is the lord. A visit to the underworld is described in the poem Nergal and Ereshkigal, n. 26 in B&K. Among the features of the underworld: We give now an interpretation of the Apsu and the underwold that agrees very well with the geography of that part of Central Asia where the Hunza valley is located. First, we identify the Apsu with the huge inner sea that until a few thousand years ago filled the presently desertic depressions of Takla Makan and Lop Nor, the first a desert with great sandy dunes, the second a steppe type desert full of salty flats. It is a recent fundamental discovery based upon the analysis of satellites pictures, due to the Turkish geomorphologist Eroz Orgul, see Pittman and Ryan [24], that the said deserts were filled with water for a substantial depth until about the second millennium BC. The "creation" event being datable at the sixth millennium BC, we would then be in presence of a substantial water basin, of the order one million square km, in the very heart of Asia, surrounded by the Kunlun range in the south, by the Pamir-Tienshan in the west and north, by the Nanshan in the east. All these are mighty mountain ranges, reaching in many places over 6000 meters. Further we should notice: It is our hypothesis that the Sumerians, who called themselves black heads (which is exactly the name the Tibetans give to themselves, bod pa, as stated in the books of Alexandra David-Néel) lived in the Apsu-Dilmun region before the Flood, survived the Flood in the Anye Machen region, near Dilmun or part of Dilmun, and then moved to Mesopotamia probably by the way of India; some of them may have remained there (we have in mind the Pani, an ancient Indian population involved in maritime trade; remember that boat technology had to be well developed in the Apsu region!) of Sippar, ancient city
whose territory the Lord of the Earth
preserved from the Flood,
against the will of Shamash, its lord,
you destroyed both the walls and their foundations

Since the Flood must have implied a uniform rise of the waters of the Apsu, we deduce that Sippar was located higher than Shurrupak from the shoreline of the Apsu, hence it was probably built before (under the hypothesis that cities were preferably built near the shoreline of this sweet water basin); thus, while it could escape being flooded, since the rise of the level of the Apsu was limited, it could not escape the global earthquake that must have characterized the Flood event, to be discussed in a forthcoming paper [25].

We conclude this section with our interpretation of the underworld. We have noted that the Hunza valley was historically almost isolated, especially with respect to the access from the south, since the way to Gilgit goes through a deep, narrow and dangerous chasm. We are led to the hypothesis that the underwold refers geographically exactly to the chasm between Hunza and Gilgit. We can see here indeed the following features of the mythological underwold:

We note that in the Enochian texts, see next section, the underworld is a place of punishment not for man but for the Angels/Watchers, who violated their duties by copulating with human females and providing man with information not be divulged. In the Enochian underworld there is fire, and rivers of fire are seen by Enoch during his trip to this region. Here we notice that the chasm between Hunza and Gilgit lies in the western Karakorum (black rocks) reaches, mainly consisting of granite, a very ancient volcanic rock. We have been unable to ascertain whether the region contains recently deposited volcanic rock. The chasm lies however also south of the Rakaposhi mountain, at which basis hot water sources are found, see Tilman [32]. They indicate a magmatic activity going on not too deeply, a sign of possible surface magmatic events before the Flood.

3. Geographical information on Paradise in the book of Enoch

As said before, the book of Enoch, considered by St Augustin to be of "hoary antiquity", respected and cited by the early Church Fathers, was not included in the Canon of the Christian Church, which meant its doom and oblivion. The last quotation in ancient times was by Syncellus, circa 800 AD. The book however survived on the periphery of Christianity, particularly in Ethiopia, where many ancient documents and traditions escaped the ostracism that affected them in the former Roman world. Two copies of the Enoch book were found and brought to Europe by the great Scottish explorer and leader of Masonry James Bruce, who entered Ethiopia from Massaua in 1760 and left it by the way of the Blue Nile and Egypt in 1733, see [26]. Other versions of Enoch book, the so called Slavic Enoch, have been found in five manuscripts in monasteries of Serbia and Russia, the oldest dating at the 15th century. The origin of these Slavic books is obscure. They might have been preserved by some Jewish scholars (fragments of Enoch have also been found in Qumram) or may have arrived from Armenia, another region escaping the control of the Roman church, via the Bogomils, who from their first settlement in Bulgaria spread throughout the Balkans (wherefrom they may have influenced the Cathars and the Templars). The Slavic Enoch is much smaller, about one third, than the Ethiopian Enoch (which seems to contain also material from the once independent books of Noah and Methuselah). Scholars usually value the Slavic Enoch as the closest to the original text. The best known translation is still the one made by Charles in 1896. We have used the translation into Italian of all Enoch books recently provided by Pincherle [28]. We indicate by EE the Ethiopian Enoch, by ES the Slavic Enoch.

Enoch is the seventh in the line of the ten prediluvian Patriarchs (Adam, Seth, Enos, Cainan, Malaleel, Jared, Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, Noah); notice that the span of time covered by these Patriarchs is given in the Septuaginta as about 2630 years; since Noah survived the Flood by about 300 years, this provides about 2300 years between the "creation" and the Flood, as in the Atrahasis.

Some data about the life of Enoch are the following:

It is of course very difficult to deal with a text like Enoch, arrived to us in versions very late with the respect to the described events and certainly seriously affected by later revisions. It is also quite a problem to decide which sense to give to a text involving contacts with angels, of both good and evil nature, and the meeting with the High Lord after what at face value appears to be a space travel. Most commentators would give to the Enoch texts only a symbolic, allegorical value, but see O&O for an interpretation in realistic terms.

Now we will look at some geographical features from the "aerial travel" of Enoch, concerning our identification of Eden/Kharsag/Paradise with the Hunza valley. The following lines (EE, 26/1-5) are of special interest:

1 - From there I reached the center of earth and saw a blessed place with trees in bloom
2- There I saw a holy mountain; east of it a river was flowing to the south
3- To the east I saw a high mountain; a deep and narrow valley was between the two mountains
4 - West of this mountain was a lower mountain, with a deep and dry valley between the three mountains
5 - The valley was deep, narrow, only hard rock, without trees.

This is our interpretation in the framework of the Hunza area complex:

1 - The blessed place with trees is the Hunza valley, identified with the Garden of Eden; the definition "center of the world" is not inappropriate, being this area the place where four great rivers are born and four mighty mountain ranges converge. If an airship would approach Earth from space, this region would certainly come to special attention due to these features!

2 - The holy mountain west of a river can be identified with the Pasu Group, dominating the massif where the four rivers are born. The highest peak here, in a series of peaks of almost the same height, is called Hunza Kunji. According to Maraini [30], "kunshi" is a much used Tibetan word meaning "the creator of all"( the standard spelling, has noted Vogliotti to us, would be kungzhi, meaning the first cause, the original nature, the spirit). From our previous identification of the meaning of Hunza, we can thus surmise for "Hunza Kunji" the meaning "The Lord of knowledge, the creator of all", this being a reference, in the Sumerian context, to Enlil, if not Anu. Thus within the context of the Sumerian tales, this mountain might be identified with the mountain of assembly, the place where Anu descended when he had to attend emergency meetings.

3 - The highest peak in the east can be identified with the Rakaposhi, that dominates in height a group of several tall mountains. This mountain has a very definite pyramidal shape, dominates the valley especially when seen by people who descend from the northern passes (Mintaka, Kilik), is white shining being covered with ice, was considered not climbable for many years (it was climbed the first time in 1958). It is considered sacred by the Hunza people, who call it with the name Dumani, meaning "necklace of clouds". The name Rakaposhi has no certain meaning and this mountains is not known to have been referred to in the literature. We propose the etymology "border of the people of God", from the relations POSHI= border (root PSH in Pishon, Peshawar…), KA=people, RA=God. See also Appendix 4.

4,5 - The narrow and deep valley may be related to the chasm between Hunza and Gilgit, that we discussed in relation with the underworld, closed on the southern side by much lower mountains, on the north by the Rakaposhi). We already noticed that the presence of sources of hot water on the way to the Rakaposhi suggests past volcanic activity. This would explain several passages in the Enochian texts about fire in the region that he visited.


Our analysis has shown a compatibility between the geography in the Sumerian sources about Kharsag and the Enochian information about Paradise, with the location that we have previously suggested for the Garden of Eden described in the Bible book of Genesis. Our approach is based upon the hypothesis that the considered texts preserve a memory of real events. Further research should include a fuller search of the Sumerian-Akkadian sources and of Jewish sources (Qumram, Talmud, Midrash, Legends). Moreover it would be extremely important to look at any surviving traditions among the people in the Karakorum-Hindukush-Pamir-Kunlun region. Some of these people, e.g. the so called Kafiri of the Kafiristan region between Pakistan and Afghanistan, have been isolated for millennia and were only recently forced to convert to Islam, see Maraini [34].

Appendix 1. Who were the Anunnaki?

In Genesis we find two names associated with divinity, Elohim and Yahveh, the first being a plural, meaning "the shining ones", but usually translated as a singular, via the pluralis majestatis interpretation, hence as another name of God = Yahveh. In the books of Enoch we are presented with Angels and Archangels (with detailed classification of their role in the celestial abode), fallen Angels and the Lord of the High. In the Sumerian texts we meet the Annunaki, Great Sons of the Light, with their tripartite division.

The question naturally arises about who are the "god, gods" of the considered texts. We just consider a list of some possible answers:

1 - The positivistic answer, dominating the scientific and academic world: the gods are inventions of the religious authorities, who have to provide an answer to the eternal questions: who we are? where do we come from? What will happen of us after death?

2 - The answer of the modern religions, in particular the three monotheistic religions of Hebraism, Christianity and Islam: the unique God has directly operated on Earth, possibly with the help of his Angels, to create man, a union of a physical body and a spiritual soul. From this answer the rejection follows of the detailed interactions between man and gods appearing in the "pagan" religions, unless the "gods" are interpreted as devils, which was the usual stand of the Church Fathers. Hence the systematic destruction of ancient documents by Christians (the bonfire of the magician books in Tarsus by Paul; a first destruction of the Alexandria library under Theodosius; the bonfires of the Mayan codices in Mexico by Diego de Landa; the destruction of almost all the 8000 rongorongo tablets still existing in Easter Island last century, only 21 are left…) and by Islam (the final destruction of the Alexandria library in the 7th century; the devastation of the Hindu temples and libraries in northern India; the destruction in Asir of the holy place of the cult of El Ais by Ibn Saud at the beginning of the 20th century ….).

3 - The hypothesis of authors as Collins [37] or Hancock [38] that the "gods" are deified human beings, survivors of a previous higher civilization destroyed by a catastrophe, typically the civilization of Atlantis dated at the time set by Plato, circa 9500 BC.

4 - The hypothesis of O&O, amply developed in the substantial monograph [19], where the traces of the Shining Ones are followed throughout the world, that the "gods" are superior beings, originating from what a school of Sikh mystics calls "causal and astral regions". These beings are deemed to have visited the Earth in the period between the end of the last glaciation and the first millennium BC. Man would be the result of a hybridization process between such beings and the pre-existing Cro Magnon man. Agriculture would have been the result of their teaching.

5 - It is a thesis of De Grazia [5] that "gods" exist in many places of the universe, this term defining classes of intelligent beings, a class endowed with higher intelligence being considered of "gods" by a less endowed class. The "gods" of ancient traditions might therefore be interpreted as visitors to our planet from another planet with more advanced intelligent life. A further step can be taken within the scenario developed by Ackerman [7,8], who describes the birth of Venus a few millennia ago in the context of catastrophic interactions with Earth and Mars. Ackerman posits that Mars was previously within the habitable zone, wherefrom it was expelled by Venus, reaching its present orbit around 700 BC after several close interactions with Earth, as independently argued before by Velikovsky [3] and De Grazia [4]. He assumes that Mars had water, a significant atmosphere and life; this biosphere would have been lost during the catastrophic events that affected Mars before it settled in its present orbit in a non habitable zone. If we assume that life included also intelligent life more advanced than the level reached at that time by man, then two hypothesis should be considered naturally:

6 - As a variation of the above scenario which does not assume presence of advanced intelligent life on Mars but on one or more planets of stars in our part of the galaxy, one may hypothesize that the very special events that affected the solar system for several thousand years, described by Velikovsky, De Grazia and Ackerman, may have attracted to the solar system visitors from one of such inhabited planet. These visitors inter alia would have interacted with man via genetic modifications (of the type we are close to be able to implement ourselves) and cultural influence. It should be noted that intelligent beings with a scientific development just a few hundred (but it could be many millennia or million ) years more advanced than ours should be capable at least of the following feats: Appendix 2. One Eve or seven Eves?

According to Genesis, one couple is created in the Garden of Eve: Adam first, then Eve, by a curious process that involves a rib of Adam. Eve is called "flesh of the flesh" of Adam. There are worldwide several traditions of mankind descending from a single couple and it is sometimes specified, e.g. for the primordial couple of Fuxi and Nawa, referred to in Chinese traditions, that they were twins.

Just as an intriguing thought, let us note the following facts about the creation of Eve as described in Genesis:

In the Sumerian tale, seven couples are created. It is another intriguing observation that from recent mitochondrical analysis, see Sykes [35], the population of at least Europe and the Mediterranean region can be clustered into seven groups, each one deriving from a single female ancestor. However these women ancestors are not dated at the same time, so it is not possible to straightforwardly identify then with the seven women of the creation in Kharsag (albeit it must be said that the dating of the ancestor is very tentative, based upon some tentative extrapolations from mutation rates in fast breeding animals; it could be completely wrong under the catastrophic scenario of recent evolution of the solar system developed by Velikovsky, De Grazia and Ackerman).

A striking difference between the Genesis and the Sumerian creation story is the presence of one couple versus seven couples. A possible way out of this problem is that the woman of one couple died and was substituted by a newly "created" younger woman, Eve, a clone of Adam. The new couple felt to be special, aimed at a special role within the small community, was envied by the others, and was finally expelled. That Adam had a previous wife before Eve is actually stated in some Jewish ancient traditions, where such a woman is given the name Lilith and is considered as a demoness.

Appendix 3. The location of the prediluvian Sumerian cities

Our discussion of Apsu has taken us to times much later than the creation event. We know from Sumerian texts that several cities existed before the Flood (three gods are even claimed to have reigned in Bad Tibira for 108.000 years, see [40]); we also know from Genesis that cities were build and metallurgy had been developed in the land settled by the descendents of Cain, the land of Nod, that we in [1] identified with the heart of Asia. From the previous scenario and our work in [1] we are led to a tentative identification of the location of the following prediluvian cities of the Sumerian tradition:

Despite the immense devastation brought by the Flood, it is not impossible that remains of these cities may be found. These cities were anyway reconstructed in Mesopotamia, the region where after the Flood the Sumerians migrated (from Dilmun). The well known ruins of these cities lie over a sterile layer of alluvial sand, first discovered by Woolley, below which are found remains of cities of a different civilization, the Ubaitic one, also present in Bahrein and in the Arabian peninsula. One should observe that Central Asia is still an almost virgin land for archaeological research. The recent discoveries of huge cities of the first/second millennium BC in Xinjang (Loulan, Miran…) and of the third millennium BC in Turkmenistan and Tagikistan (in the so called BAM, Bactriana/Margiana complex) suggest that we are approaching an important revision of the established scenarios on the historical/geographical development of civilization.

Appendix 4. A reference to Rakaposhi and Hunza Kunji in Hurrian and Hittite mythology?

The Hurrians are a people that are present on the scenario of the Middle East from the second half of the third millennium BC to the first half of the first millennium BC. They were located between present Turkey and Syria near the Mediterranean. Their language, poorly known, is of the agglutinant type (like Sumerian, Turkish or Mongolian), which may point to an origin from Central Asia. Their religion had some connection with the Sumerian/Akkadian religion, some of the main texts of these people, e.g. the epics of Gilgamesh, having been found translated into Hurrian. See Imparati [44] for a review of the knowledge about Hurrians in the sixties.

In our discussion of the Hunza valley as the possible location of the Garden of Eden of Genesis, of Kharsag of Sumerian texts and of Paradise of Enoch, we have noticed the special feature provided by the twin mountains Hunza Kunji and Rakaposhi, located on the same meridian and with virtually the same elevation. It is therefore of interest to notice that a reference to two holy mountains appears in the Hurrian mythology: the god Tessub, god of the high peaks, usually considered to corresp0ond to the Akkadian god Adad, is claimed to advance between two divine mountains, one named HAZZI (perhaps a connection with Hunza Kunji ?), the other named NANNI (perhaps related with the Hunzakut name of Rakaposhi, DU-MANI = DU-NANI ?). Furthermore, in the great rocky sanctuary of Yazilikaya, close to the Hittite capital Hattusa, where most of the shown divinities are actually from the Hurrian pantheon, the Hittite king Tudhalija IV is shown standing with his feet on two sacred mountains.



[1] E. Spedicato, Eden revisited: geography, numerics and other tales, Report DMSIA Miscellanea 1/01, University of Bergamo, 2001 (see also Episteme N. 6, Part I, only in Italian)

[2] E. Spedicato, Eden revisited: geography, numerics and other tales (revised version), preprint, 2003

[3] I. Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, Doubleday, 1950

[4] A. De Grazia, Chaos and Creation, an Introduction to Quantavolution in Human and Natural History, Metron, Princeton, 1981

[5] A. De Grazia, Divine Succession, a Science of Gods Old and New, Metron, Princeton, 1983

[6] A. De Grazia and E.R. Milton, Solaria Binaria, Origins and History of the Solar System, Metron, Princeton, 1984

[7] J. Ackerman, Firmament, in, 1996

[8] J. Ackerman, Chaos, in, 1996

[9] D. Rohl, Legend, the Genesis of Civilization, Butler and Tamor, 1998

[10] K. Salibi, The Bible came from Arabia, Naufal, 1996

[11] S. Hummel, On Zhang-Zhung, Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala, 2000 (G. Vogliotti ed.)

[12] J. de Claustre, Histoire de Tamas Kouli Kan, Nouveau Roi de Perse, chez Sirtori, Milano, 1746

[13] I. Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1953

[14] G.A. Barton, Sumerian Religious Texts, New Haven, 1918

[15] S.N. Kramer, Sumerian Mythology, New York, 1961

[16] J. Bottero, S.N. Kramer, Uomini e Dei della Mesopotamia, Einaudi, 1992

[17] G. Pettinato, Mitologia Sumerica, UTET, 2002

[18] S. O' Brien and B. O' Brien, The Genius of the Few, Dianthus Publishing, Cirencester, 1999

[19] S. O' Brien and B. O' Brien, The Shining Ones, Dianthus Publishing, Cirencester, 2002

[20] G. Smith, The Chaldaean Account of Genesis, London, 1875

[21] E. Spedicato, Numerics and Geography of Gilgamesh Travels, Report DMSIA Miscellanea 1/00, University of Bergamo, 2000 (also in Migration and Diffusion, 1/6 and 1/7, 2001)

[22] J. de Mahieu, Les Templiers en Amérique, Laffont, 1981

[23] G. Pettinato, La Scrittura Celeste, Mondadori, 1988

[24] W. Pitman and W. Ryan, Noah's Flood, the New Scientific Discoveries on the Event that Changed History, Simon and Schuster, 1998

[25] E. Spedicato, The three great catastrophes of Plato, a discussion of their chronology and their causes, to appear

[26] J. Bruce, Travels and Discoveries in Abyssinia, Nimmo and Mitchell, Edinburgh, circa 1880

[27] C. O' Brien, The path of light, Dianthus, Cirencester, 2003

[28] M. Pincherle, Enoch, il primo libro del mondo, Macro Edizioni, 2000

[29] G. Duranti, Nella grande piramide di Giza, un messaggio per il nostro millennio? Filosofia Oggi, 26, 147-163, 2003

[30] F. Maraini, Segreto Tibet, Corbaccio, 1998

[31] Al Tabari, I Profeti e i Re, Guanda, 1993

[32] H.W. Tilman, Deux Montagnes et une Rivière, Arthaud, 1953

[33] Hindunet,, People called Martu

[34] F. Maraini, Paropamiso, Corbaccio, 2002

[35] B. Sykes, The Seven Daughters of Eve, Norton & Company, 2001

[36] F. Vinci, Da Omero nel Baltico al paradiso indoeuropeo e al giardino dell' Eden, Archeomisteri 1, 50-69, 2002

[37] A. Collins, From the Ashes of Angels, the Forbidden Legacy of a Fallen Race, Signet Book, 1997

[38] G. Hancock, Fingerprints of the Gods, Crown, 1995

[39] M. Pincherle, La grande piramide e lo Zed, Macro Edizioni, 2000

[40] text W-B-144, quoted in Sitchin, The Twelfth Placet, Stein and Day, 1976

[41] H. Mandel, La civiltà della valle dell' Indo, Sugarco, Milano, 1976

[42] T. Van Flandern, Speed of gravity result interests the UFO community, Meta Research Bulletin, 12,2, 18-20, 2003

[43] H. Uhlig, La via della seta, Garzanti, 2000

[44] F. Imparati, I Hurriti, Sansoni, 1964

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Acknowledgements - Work partly supported by MAF and Fondi Ateneo 2002. Thanks are due to Antonio Agriesti, Michele Manher and Guido Vogliotti for useful comments.

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[Una presentazione dell'autore si trova nel numero 1 di Episteme]

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Map 1. The region surrounding Hunza (from Tilman [32])



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Map 2. Showing the four rivers exiting
from the massif separating Hunza from Wakhan