FORUM DI EPISTEME





Maxwell's sea of molecular vortices 1861,
the inspiration for "The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field"


_____________________________________________________________

4  - Frederick David Tombe

sirius184@hotmail.com

- - - - -

The following 1st July 2010 revision of "The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field" summarizes all the most important issues that have been covered in the various revisions since the original paper of 15th February 2006.
 

A - The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field

Abstract.
In 1856, Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch performed an experiment with a Leyden Jar which showed that the ratio of the quantity of electricity when measured statically, to the same quantity of electricity when measured electrodynamically, is numerically equal to the directly measured speed of light. In 1861, in his paper entitled ‘On Physical Lines of Force’, James Clerk-Maxwell equated the above ratio with the ratio of the dielectric constant to the magnetic permeability. In the same paper, Maxwell modeled Faraday’s magnetic lines of force using a sea of molecular vortices that were composed partly of aether and partly of ordinary matter. He linked the dielectric constant to the transverse elasticity of this vortex sea, and he linked the magnetic permeability to the density. Since Newton’s equation for the speed of sound involves the ratio of the transverse elasticity to the density, Maxwell was able to use Weber’s constant to show that light is a wave in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. It will now be suggested that Maxwell’s molecular vortices are more accurately represented with rotating electron-positron dipoles that are aligned in a double helix fashion with their mutual rotation axes tracing out the magnetic lines of force.

May 2016 - A new version of the previous paper:

A' - The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field

Abstract.
The historical linkage between optics and electromagnetism can be traced back to a paper published in the year 1856 by Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch. By discharging a Leyden Jar (a capacitor), they showed that the ratio of the electromagnetic and electrostatic units of charge is numerically equal to the directly measured speed of light. Weber interpreted this result as meaning that the speed of light is a kind of escape velocity for electricity in motion, such as would enable the associated magnetic force to overcome the electrostatic force. An alternative interpretation was advanced a few years later by James Clerk-Maxwell who connected the result to the elasticity in an all pervading solid medium that serves as the carrier of light waves. As a consequence, he concluded that light waves are electromagnetic undulations. These two perspectives can be reconciled by linking the speed of light to the circumferential speed of the molecular vortices which Maxwell believed to be the constituent particles of the solid luminiferous medium. If we consider these molecular vortices to be tiny electric current circulations, magnetic repulsion can then be explained in terms of centrifugal force. And if these molecular vortices should take the form of an electron and a positron in mutual orbit, we can then also explain magnetic attraction in terms of the more fundamental electrostatic force being channeled through space along double helix chains that constitute magnetic lines of force.


* * * * *
 
B - Gravitation, Electrostatics, and the Electron-Positron Aether (Ether)
(Based on the 1982 paper by  David Tombe, entitled  "Electrogravitomagnetism")

[22nd August 2008 - This paper has  been totally withdrawn,  for  the reason  that  it centres around a  theory which  attempts   to rationalize  inertial mass as being related to the sum  of the "modulus"   of the electric charge in a body. More recently, I have  been  working on a different  principle as explained in the paper  at N2 entitled "Negative  Mass and the  Gravity Sink". The ideas contained  in this paper concerning inertial mass were   only  peripheral to the main theme regarding an electron-positron luminiferous   medium. These  ideas concerning  inertial mass have now been superseded by a new theory which  involves absolute values as opposed to 'modulus' values of charge .
(We maintain nevertheless a copy of the paper for history's sake.)

3rd November 2011  - A comment from the author. There is really no important need   to withdraw  this paper. I am once again of the opinion, as was stated in   the paper, that  mass is a cumulative quantity based on all the particles   in a body. I can  add that it is widely believed, due to a common error in  the secondary literature,  that Maxwell conceived of displacement current   in connection with the electric capacitor circuit. In actual fact, Maxwell's original paper of 1861, part  III, indicates that he did not conceive of   displacement current in connection  with the electric capacitor circuit. This paper, based on research done in  1982, perpetrates that common error,  and the author has corrected it in future  articles. The author also now notes that the displacement current term as  is used in the derivation of the electromagnetic wave equation, should be  magnetization based, and not linear polarization based. In other words, it  should be a rotatory effect and not a linear effect.]

23rd January 2011 - This paper has been fully revised, here is in red a comment from the author (we maintain previous comments again for history's sake).

-  This article was written in 2003 based on original material from 1982, without any revision of the core ideas. Research was commenced again in 2004. As a result of seven further years of investigation, comments have now been added in red by the author, in order to draw attention to the revised views in the light of the more recent research. The first issue concerns the title itself. The electron-positron sea is not the aether as such. Positrons are aether sources and electrons are aether sinks. The electrons and positrons are paired in mutual orbits to form rotating dipoles, and as such the electron-positron medium for the propagation of light is actually a sea of tiny dipolar aether whirlpools.


        
C -The Coriolis Force in Maxwell's Equations
( A comparative study of  Maxwell's 1864   paper "A  Dynamical Theory of  the Electromagnetic Field and his  1861 paper "On   Physical Lines of  Force")
     

D -  Gravitational Induction and the Gyroscopic Force
(A hydrodynamical theory of gravity  that  accounts for the gyroscopic force)
D (new) - Gravitation and the Gyroscopic Force
(A hydrodynamical theory of gravity that accounts for the gyroscopic force)
   

E - Gravity Reversal and Atomic Bonding
(A Theory of Mutually Attracting Sinks)

[Note of the Editor: As far as the following assertion is concerne d: « the Earth's magnetic field is  explained by virtue of the fact that the Earth is a rotating negatively charged object» , the reader could be interested even in the  paper presented in next point 8.]

E (new)  - Gravity Reversal and Atomic Bonding
(A Theory of Mutually Attracting Sinks)


F - The Link between Electric  Current and Magnetic Field
(The Epicycle Theory of the Atom)


G - The Richness and Quality of The Electron Positron Dipole
(New revised version: 5th August 2008)


H - The DNA of Electromagnetic Radiation
(The Rotating Electron Positron Dipole)
(New revised version: 5th August 2008)

    
I - Charge, Spin, and 'Charge to Mass' Ratio
(A Unified Theory of Gravity and Electricity)

22nd August 2008: This paper has been
  totally withdrawn (together with paper B) , for the reason that it centres around a theory which attempts to rationalize  inertial mass as being related to the sum of the "modulus" of the electric  charge in a body. More recently, I have been working on a different principle  as explained in the paper at N2 entitled "Negative Mass and the Gravity Sink".   The ideas contained in this paper concerning inertial mass were only peripheral  to the main theme regarding an electron-positron luminiferous medium. These  ideas concerning inertial mass have now been superseded by a new theory which  involves absolute values as opposed to 'modulus' values of charge, and the theories concerning centrifugal force and Coriolis force contained  within this paper have been expanded upon in the paper at Q2 entitled "The  Cause of Centrifugal Force" .

(We maintain nevertheless a copy of the paper for history's sake.)



 
J - Archimedes' Principle in the Electric Sea
(New revised version: 9th October 2008)
(New revised version: 14th December 2008)


K - The Unification of Electricity and Magnetism
(New revised version: 5th August 2008)

   
L - The Aether and the Electric Sea
(The Link between Gravity and Electromagnetism)

(New revised version: 18th February 2009)

(New revised version: 5th March 2009)

New revised version: 18th March 2009
(
"The amendment changed a paragraph in the section about inertia")
 

L' - The Aether and the Electric Sea
(The Link between Gravity and Electromagnetism)

(New revised version of L: 2nd June 2009
"Another section mentioning inertia was removed". We maintain nevertheless a copy of the previous paper for history's sake.)


M - E = mc² and Maxwell's Fifth Equation
(A Dielectric Solution to E = mc²)

New revised version: 4th November 2008


N - The Unification of Gravity and Magnetism
(A Theory of Rotationally Siphoned Aether)


O - E = vXB and Maxwell's Fourth Equation

                                            
P - Rotating Magnetic Fields in the Electric Sea

       
Q - Earnshaw's Theorem and Magnetic Levitation

   
R - The Connection between Gravity and Light

   
S - The Expansion Chamber Theory of the Magnetic Field
(An Aetherdynamical Approach to Electric Current)
   

T - Aether causes anti-Friction in the Planetary Orbits


U - Cyclones and the Earth's Magnetic Field


U' - Cyclones and the Coriolis Force


25th April 2008 - The following is a new revised version the previous paper. We keep both             versions for history's sake.

U'' - Cyclones and the Coriolis Force


(New revised version of U': 2nd June 2009
"This was a major amendment based on the realization that the Coriolis force is a real transverse force that arises in connection with the conservation of angular momentum". We maintain nevertheless a copy of the previous paper for history's sake.)

 
V - Vitreous Electricity and Centrifugal Potential Energy
(New revised version: 24th May 2008)
(New revised version: 24th September 2008)


W - The Archimedes' Screw in the Electric Sea
   


X - The Speed of Light varies with Magnetic Flux Density

[Note of the Editor: As far as this article is concerne d, it seems interesting to recall a paper by Rocco Vittorio Macrì, "The magnetic field as a particular current of ether: a proposal of experiments on its possible interaction with light" , which was published in Episteme N. 4 (Sep. 2001). ]


Y - The Four Kinds of Electric Charge
(A vitreous electricity explanation for infinite supplies of electric charge)
(New revised version: 24th September 2008)
(New revised version: 14th December 2008)
(New revised version: 2nd June 2009
"A general re-wording without any major change in the content".)

                                                                                                                            
Z - Electrical Arcing and Action-at-a-Distance


A2 - Bernoulli's Principle and the Theory of Flight


A2' -  Bernoulli's Principle and the Theory of Flight

(New revised version of A2: 2nd June 2009

"This was a major re-write with an increased emphasis on the role of the centrifugal force in the air molecules". We maintain nevertheless a copy of the previous paper for history's sake.)

                                                                    
B2 - Rotational and Irrotational Forces
(New revised version: 18th July 2008 )

                
C2 - Turbulence, Vorticity and the Coriolis Force
(New revised version: 18th May 2008)
(New revised version: 18th February 2009)
 
D2 - Lightning and the Gravitational Capacitor
(Auroras and Gravitationally Powered Fluorescent Lights)
(New revised version: 9th October 2008)
(New slightly revised version: 22.XII.2011 - By any means, here it is a copy of the old paper)

 
E2 - Equilibrium in the Electric Circuit
   

    
F2 - Saturn Exhibits Spin-Induced Magnetism
(New amended version: 21.XI.2011)
                                                                             

G2 - The Subtlety of Gravity
(New revised version: 28th August 2008 )
                
       
H2 - Bernoulli's Principle and the AC Transformer
(New revised version: 18th May 2008)

October 2016 - A new version of the previous paper (this new version disregards matters to do with capacitance as they are a red herring to the main issue: that charge is something that must flow net into the circuit from the power source; the idea is that charge is the pressure in an electric fluid and that Bernoulli's principle in conjunction with conservation of power is the governing feature in a transformer circuit; the older version side-tracks too much to the subject of capacitance, and it doesn't sufficiently emphasize the fact that charge must enter net as like pressurized water into the water supply network):

H2' - Bernoulli's Principle and the AC Transformer

Abstract.
The AC transformer is a transducer which converts between potential energy and kinetic energy. A step-up transformer increases the voltage and decreases the current while a step-down transformer does the opposite. Despite the low current, streaks of lightning arc out from high voltage cross country power cables when earthed objects get too close. The physical nature of voltage will now be examined.

   
I2 - Fundamental Torque and the Rattleback
(New revised version: 29th January 2009)
New revised version: 5th March 2009  
 
J2 - Inertia is Centrifugal Force
J2 (New) - The Faraday Paradox and Newton's Rotating Bucket
   

K2 - The Aether in Rigid Body Collisions
(New revised version: 13th July 2008)
(New revised version: 29th January 2009)
       
L2 - A Solenoidal Double Helix of Sinks and Sources
(Faraday's Lines of Force)
(New revised version: 1st December 2008)


M2 - Centrifugal Pressure in the Aether


N2 - Negative Mass and the Gravity Sink


O2 - The General Convective Force
(A General Survey of the Coriolis force and the Centrifugal force)

(New revised version: 9th June 2008)
(New revised version: 19th August 2008 )


P2 -
Centrifugal Force in the Electric Circuit
(New revised version: 28th December 2008:
"The focus was in amending the section on EM induction in relation to Coriolis Force", see T2 and T2')
(New revised version: 29th January 2009)

New revised version: 18th March 2009 ("The wording in the centrifugal force section was improved to emphasize the extrapolation of the general principle of centrifugal force to the four body problem in which two closed orbital systems sit side by side, and therefore must repel each other ")

P2' - Centrifugal Force in  the Electric Circuit

(New revised version of P2: 2nd June 2009
"This revision goes into much more detail on the role of the Coriolis force in the induction of current in a wire that is moving through a magnetic field". We maintain nevertheless a copy of the previous paper for history's sake.)


                                     
Q2 - The Cause of Centrifugal Force
(New revised version: 19th August 2008 )
(New revised version: 7th December 2008 )
(New revised version: 5th March 2009)

Q2' - The Cause of Centrifugal Force

(New revised version of Q2: 2nd June 2009

"This was a major re-write based on the realization that the inverse cube law points to a dipole field". We maintain nevertheless a copy of the previous paper for history's sake.)


R2 - Electrostatic Repulsion and Aether Pressure
(New revised version: 28th August 2008 )
(New revised version: 14th December 2008)

S2 - The Coriolis Force and the Screw
       
* 30.XI.2011: This paper has now been withdrawn, but you can still read it with an author's remark.

                                                           
T2 -
Areal Velocity, Coriolis Force, and Vorticity


T2' - The Cause of Coriolis Force
(New revised version of T2: 28th December 2008)
"T2' is a major amendment. I've taken all the contents into what is effectively a new paper". We maintain nevertheless a copy of the previous paper for history's sake.
(
New revised version: 5th March 2009)


T2'' -
The Cause of Coriolis Force

(New revised version of T2': 2nd June 2009)
"This was a major re-write based on a clearer division between transverse Coriolis force and axial Coriolis force" . We maintain nevertheless a copy of the previous    paper for history's sake.

 
U2 -
Displacement Current
(New revised version: 14th December 2008)


V2 - Displacement Current 2

    
W2 - The Telegraphy Equation
(New revised version: 18th February 2009)

X2 - Bernoulli's Principle in the Antenna
   

Y2 - Wave/Particle Duality in Electromagnetic Radiation


Z2 -
Wave/Particle Duality in Cathode Rays


A3 -
Cathode Rays, Gravity, and Electromagnetic Radiation
(New revised version: 14th December 2008)

        
B3 -
Tangential Force – The Equilibrium Shifter
(New revised version: 29th January 2009)

New revised version: 18th March 2009 (" Appendix B was removed as it was a bit hard to read, and out of context, and it will be the subject of a separate paper some time in the future ")

B3' - Lenz's Law

(New revised version of B3: 5th November 2009
This is a major re-write of the previous paper, we maintain nevertheless a copy of the older one for history's sake.)


C3 - The Key that Winds up the Universe

New revised version: 18th March 2009 (" Large, somewhat confusing sections on 'inertia' were removed. A new paper on inertia will be written some time in the future")


D3 - Electromagnetism and the Rolling Wheel


E3 - The Superimposition of Radiation and Gravity
New revised version: 5th March 2009

 
F3 - The Rotationally Elastic Sponge


G3 - Kepler's Law of Areal Velocity in Cyclones


H3 -
Inertia and the Electric Sea
 

I3 -
The Coriolis Force is a System of Accountancy for Real Forces


J3 -
The Physical Nature of the Coriolis Force


Un nuovo lavoro, febbraio 2010 - A new paper, February 2010:

K3 - Maxwell's Sea of Molecular Vortices
 

L3 -
Magnetic Repulsion and Centrifugal Force
(April 2010)


M3 - The Electric Rings of Force that cause the Tides
(September 2010)


N3 - The Coriolis Force and the Aether (The Compound Centrifugal Force)
(December 2010)

Abstract.
The Coriolis force is induced by a compound motion involving two independent yet physically connected motions, one of which is linear and the other which must be of a rotatory nature. In a paper which he wrote in 1835, French scientist Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis referred to it as the "compound centrifugal force ". Just like centrifugal force, it acts to deflect an element perpendicularly to its path of motion, but its mathematical expression is exactly twice that of the simple centrifugal force. It is commonly associated with atmospheric cyclones, but it can also be observed deflecting the effect of gravity on a comet, reversing a rotating rattleback (Celtic stone), preventing a pivoted spinning gyroscope from toppling under the force of gravity, and driving an electric current in a wire that is moving perpendicularly to a magnetic field. The origins of the Coriolis force will now be traced to differential centrifugal pressure and differential vorticity in the dense background sea of tiny aether vortices which serves as the medium for the propagation of light.



O3 - The Coriolis Force and the Rattleback
(December 2010)

Abstract.
The rattleback (Celtic Stone) is the most mysterious phenomenon in classical mechanics. It reverses its angular momentum by inducing a Coriolis pressure from the dense background sea of rotating electron-positron dipoles which is the medium for the propagation of light.


P3 - The Centrifugal Force Paradox
(April 2011)

Abstract.
It is commonly taught nowadays that centrifugal force doesn't exist, except as a fictitious force that is only observable from a rotating frame of reference. This belief is based on Newton's law of inertia which states that a body undergoing straight line motion at constant speed experiences no net force, and that curved path motion involves only a centripetal force. However, if we split the net zero force of straight line constant speed motion into polar components, we find that one of these is a centrifugal force component which can physically react with constraints, hence revealing an underlying pressure associated with inertia. Further evidence that centrifugal force is a real physical force arises when inertial pressure becomes asymmetrical, as happens in a radial gravitational field or in a solenoidal magnetic field.


Q3 - Physical Lines of Force in the Aether
(April 2011)

Abstract.
In the nineteenth century, James Clerk-Maxwell was unable to explain the linkage between gravity and electromagnetism. He realized that gravitational lines of force must involve a pressure, as is the case with magnetic lines of force when they are involved in mutual repulsion. He also realized that the pressure in the magnetic lines of force acts laterally due to centrifugal force in a sea of molecular vortices, but he couldn't seem to similarly explain the pressure in the gravitational lines of force [1]. It will now be suggested that gravitational lines of force are actually lines of tension, and that Maxwell's molecular vortices are dielectric in nature. The linear polarization of these dipolar vortices, caused by the gravitational field, will increase the centrifugal pressure which is exerted laterally, and this pressure will result in a repulsive force in competition with the attractive force. The attractive force, being a monopole field, will obey the inverse square law, whereas the repulsive force, being a dipole field, will obey the inverse cube law. Hence if the charge of an object increases, the inverse cube law relationship for the surrounding repulsive force field will lead to a reversal threshold, where it will dominate over the attractive force. The charge can increase electrostatically or because of inertia. In the latter case, the repulsive force field is the large scale centrifugal force.


R3 - Anti-Gravity and the Flying Saucer
(May 2011)

(New amended version: 21.XI.2011)

     
Abstract.
There is only one anti-gravity force, and that is positive electric charge. Positive charge is the centrifugally directed pressurized aether which emerges from the sources which we understand as positively charged particles. A particular geometrical arrangement of the positive particles of the luminiferous medium is sought, such that it will push a flying saucer upwards against the gravitational field.


S3 - Centrifugal Force Denial
(June 2011)

Abstract.
When a mooring line needs to be cast from ship to shore over a lengthy distance, this can be accomplished by utilizing the concept of centrifugal potential energy. Swinging the weight in circular motion in a vertical plane, and building it up to a high angular speed is a means of storing up pressure. The weight can then be released underarm, resulting in a projectile with kinetic energy corresponding to the stored centrifugal potential energy. We can of course choose to deny the existence of this centrifugal pressure and explain the phenomenon on the grounds that we are merely witnessing the tendency of an object to move in a straight line in the absence of an applied force. But we can only indulge in this denial in the absence of a radial or a solenoidal field, and such fields exist everywhere. It will now be shown how centrifugal force corresponds to positive electric charge, kinetic energy, and inertia, and how a magnetic field is a particular manifestation of inertia.


T3 - Bernoulli's Theorem and the Principle of Flight


Abstract.
When an aeroplane moves horizontally through the air, the air pressure below the wings is greater than the air pressure above the wings. This causes a force to act vertically upwards on the aeroplane, at right angles to its direction of motion. Likewise when an electric current flows through a wire in a magnetic field, a differential pressure is exerted on either side of the wire, causing a force to act at right angles to the wire. In the former case the pressure arises from the centrifugal force that is being exerted by the air molecules, whereas in the latter case the pressure arises from the centrifugal force that is being exerted by the tiny molecular vortices that form the medium for the propagation of light.


U3 - Centrifugal Force

From F.D. Tombe
: I decided to do a paper dedicated exclusively to 'centrifugal force'. Other papers that I have written incorporate my views on centrifugal force, but this paper is designed to directly counter the official mainstream point of view on centrifugal force.

Abstract.
It is nowadays taught that centrifugal force is a fictitious force that can only be observed from a rotating frame of reference. This teaching is based on the argument that when no inward centripetal force is acting, a particle will proceed in its straight line inertial path. In situations where the physical effects of centrifugal force are detected, this is dismissed as being merely the effects of inertia. Polar coordinates relative to a point origin expose a centrifugal force acting on a particle that is moving in a straight line, but this centrifugal force tends to be masked from view by virtue of the fact that the radial position vector is rotating. This article will examine ways to expose the physical reality of the centrifugal force.

V3 - Double Centrifugal Force

Abstract.
This article examines a situation in which two completely separate centrifugal forces are acting within a single rotating system. One centrifugal force relates to the rotation axis of the rotating system, while the other centrifugal force relates to the centre of the Earth and the horizontal transverse speeds within the rotating system. The latter has the power to cause an object to rise vertically in defiance of gravity.


Z3 - The Coriolis Force (The Compound Centrifugal Force)

Abstract.
The Coriolis force is generally associated with the Earth's rotation, although it can arise in connection with any kind of rotation. In a paper which he wrote in 1835, French scientist Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis referred to it as the "compound centrifugal force", and that is exactly what it is. It is a compound inertial force which results when a compound motion causes two opposing centrifugal pressures to press differentially on either side of an object. When an object moves through the medium for the propagation of light, this induces an inertial pressure around the object which is manifested as kinetic energy. When this inertial pressure is asymmetrical, such as is the case in a radial or in a solenoidal field, the asymmetry is manifested as an inertial force. In meteorology, the asymmetry which leads to the Coriolis force being induced in cyclones is complicated by the fact that there are two centres of rotation involved, and hence we are dealing with a double Coriolis force. With the double Coriolis force in meteorology, there is the rotation that is centred on the Earth, and there is also the rotation that is centred on the cyclone itself.


A4 - Maxwell's Original Equations

From the Introduction:
Although Maxwell's most important equations had already appeared throughout his seminal paper entitled "On Physical Lines of Force", which was written in 1861 in Great Britain, it was not until 1864 that Maxwell created a distinct listing of eight equations in a section entitled "General Equations of the Electromagnetic Field" in his follow up paper entitled "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field". While Maxwell refers to twenty equations at the end of this section, there are in fact only eight equations as such. Maxwell arrives at the figure of twenty because he splits six of these equations into their three Cartesian components. Maxwell's eight original equations will be discussed in depth in individual sections throughout this paper.


B4 - Electric Current (Cable Telegraphy and Wireless Telegraphy)

Abstract.
Poynting's theorem applies to wireless telegraphy as well as to electric circuits and cable telegraphy. We will therefore seek to establish the commonality between these three phenomena.


C4 - Newton's Cradle and the Transmission Line

Abstract.
Two electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the same wire in a transmission line appear to pass right through each other. We therefore require a theory of electric current that can account for this, while at the same time maintaining consistency with Ampère's circuital law.


D4 - The Distortion of Maxwell's Equations

Abstract.
James Clerk-Maxwell is credited with having brought electricity, magnetism, and optical phenomena, together into one unified theory. The details of what exactly he did were however seriously distorted in twentieth century physics textbooks. Maxwell is most famous in connection with a set of equations which bear his name, but these equations have been totally removed from the physical context within which Maxwell was working, and outside of that physical context the full meaning of these equations is lost. Maxwell was working within the context of a sea of tiny aethereal vortices pressing against each other with centrifugal force. The centrifugal force bit was crucial for explaining magnetic repulsion, yet both centrifugal force and aether are stringently denied by modern physicists who nevertheless continue to hail Maxwell for the equations that he derived by using these very concepts which they deny. This irony seems to be explained at least in part because they think that the equations can be re-derived using Einstein's special theory of relativity. Such an erroneous belief stems from the fact that one of the most important of Maxwell's equations has been wrongly credited to Lorentz and referred to as the Lorentz force law and treated as ‘supplementary’ to Maxwell's equations. Einstein, being ignorant of Maxwell's original equations and the fact that they contained the Lorentz force law, hence wrongly believed that the equations contained no convective term, and so he made the erroneous conclusion that Maxwell's equations mean that the speed of light must be frame independent in contradiction of classical principles of vector addition of velocities. This erroneous conclusion led Einstein to his special theory of relativity in 1905, and it subsequently led to the erroneous belief amongst both relativists and many anti-relativists, that Einstein's special theory of relativity follows naturally from Maxwell's theory, when in fact Maxwell and Einstein were not even remotely working along the same lines.


E4 -
The Two Kinds of Electric Charge

Abstract.
In an earlier article, it was explained how there are four kinds of electric charge. There are in fact only two kinds of electric charge. The earlier article created four kinds of charge by identifying both a simple and a compound version for each of positive and negative charge. Simple charge was based on the tension and pressure associated with pure aether flow, in and out of negative and positive particles, while compound charge was about the intermediary effect of the electron-positron dipoles that fill the space between charged bodies. A charged body linearly polarizes the surrounding electron-positron sea and this causes a centrifugal repulsive force to act laterally from the field lines. It will be explained how two negative charges may either attract or repel depending on the strength of the charge, and hence explaining the link between gravity and electrostatics.


F4 - Electric Current and Dielectrics

Abstract.
A dielectric medium impedes electric current due to the fact that the constituent dipoles become linearly polarized and induce a back EMF. A capacitor in an electric circuit utilizes the principle that a dielectric gap in the conducting material causes impedance and acts like a dam, hence enabling electricity to be stored in the circuit. This same dielectric effect can also be used in transmission lines. We will now examine the discharging process in a capacitor with reference to a transmission line pulse, while taking care not to ignore Ampère's Circuital Law. A general principle will be proposed in which an electric circulation commences at the contact point of discharge, and that this circulation expands in two opposite directions, eating its way backwards into the original charged zone while simultaneously extending forwards beyond it, such as to create a region that is twice as long as the original zone, but exhibiting a lesser degree of linear polarization.



G4 - The Centrifugal Force and the Coriolis Force

Abstract.
In 1835, French scientist Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis wrote a paper in which he mathematically derived equations of motion for rotating coordinate systems [1]. In this paper he drew attention to two categories of supplementary forces. Coriolis referred to these forces in the plural. The forces in the first category were the ordinary centrifugal forces, while the forces in the second category were described as being equal to twice the product of the angular velocity of the mobile plane, taken with respect to the relative momentum as projected unto that plane. By analogy with the mathematical formula for the ordinary centrifugal forces, Coriolis called this second category of supplementary forces "The compound centrifugal forces". This paper aims to establish the fundamental physical cause behind centrifugal force as well as its connection with the medium for the propagation of light.

[1] Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, «Sur les équations du mouvement relatif des systèmes de corps», J. de L'Ecole Royale Polytechnique, 24th cahier, p. 142, 1835.


H4 - The Centrifugal Force Argument

Abstract.
The modern teaching is that centrifugal force only exists in a rotating frame of reference and that the only force that acts in an inertial frame of reference when a body undergoes circular motion is an inward acting centripetal force. On the contrary however it is here proposed that a rotating frame of reference, rather than creating an inertial centrifugal force, actually masks a hithertofore unrecognized inertial centripetal force. When the books are correctly balanced, it will be demonstrated that centrifugal force is a real force, closely related to kinetic energy, and observable in any frame of reference.



I4 - The Speed of Light

Abstract.
The aether (or electricity) is a fluid-like substance that is the stuff of all matter and space, and it flows constantly between positive and negative particles, with particles being merely aether sources and aether sinks. Space is densely packed with aether sinks (electrons) and aether sources (positrons). These electrons and positrons are paired into tiny dipoles. Within each dipole, the electron and the positron will undergo a mutual circular orbit. In the steady state, these tiny dipolar aether vortices will align with their neighbours according to two superimposed principles. Their rotation axes will mutually align and trace out solenoidal lines around a magnetic dipole. The resulting electron-positron double helix that winds its way around each such line is what causes the electrostatic tension that makes it into a 'magnetic line of force'. When large scale aether flow, constituting either an externally applied gravitational field or an electric current (electric field), is superimposed, the tiny vortices will become linearly polarized. This will result in a 'couple force' acting on the tiny vortices which will cause them to precess such that their precessional axes will be aligned with the externally applied field lines. Centrifugal pressure therefore acts at right angles to both magnetic and electric lines of force. In the dynamic state the alignment of the dipoles is undergoing change and the tiny dipoles will be angularly accelerating, either in magnitude or direction (precession). This realignment will be accompanied by a net vortex flow of pressurized aether that passes between neighbouring dipoles. This net flow of momentum is electromagnetic radiation and it has a wave-like nature, in that the flow will constantly be emerging from positrons and sinking into electrons. The average speed of this flow is what determines the speed of light.


L4 - Galilean Invariance and Mach's Principle

Abstract.
Galileo's «Principle of Relativity» omits any consideration of an absolute frame of reference with respect to which motion is measured. Kinetic energy would appear to be a relative quantity whose magnitude depends on the chosen frame of reference, or in the case of its centrifugal force derivative, depends on which polar origin is chosen. The magnitude of any physical interaction involving two bodies is only ever dependent on their relative velocity, and there seems to be no way of exposing the existence of any special frame of reference with respect to which linear kinetic energy is an absolute physical quantity. The fact of centrifugal force however does indicate that such a frame of reference must exist, and that this frame appears to be embedded in a medium that is in a state of zero rotation relative to the fixed background stars. Rotation relative to the fixed background stars induces centrifugal force, which suggests that kinetic energy is indeed an absolute physical quantity that is induced by the interaction of a moving body with a physical medium which pervades all of space. In this article it will be proposed that the physical medium for the propagation of light is also the cause of kinetic energy and centrifugal force, and we will be reminded that Maxwell's equations are formulated specifically with this medium as the standard of rest. Important questions relating to the motion of this luminiferous medium relative to the planets and the stars will then be discussed.


M4 - The Electron-Positron Sea

Abstract.

 It is proposed that all space is permeated with a dense electrically neutral sea of electrons and positrons which serves as the medium for the propagation of light. The challenge remains to devise a stable bonding mechanism within this luminiferous medium that conforms with Maxwell's equations by providing the necessary solidity and the physical mechanism that will give rise to the characteristics of electromagnetic waves, while at the same time allowing for the fluidity that would avoid the problem of friction in the planetary orbits.

M4' - The Electron-Positron Sea
A slightly revised version (October 2017) of the previous paper.


N4 - Newton's Cradle Disproves Einstein's Theories of Relativity


Abstract.
The counter intuitive behaviour of the Newton's Cradle is not, as is generally believed, adequately explained in the literature. In particular, two important issues are overlooked. One of these is that the elasticity of the balls arises due to the fact that the balls are made of hard material that doesn't easily deform during the collisions, when in fact we might have expected the hard material to have actually reduced the elasticity. This therefore rules out linear elasticity and Hooke's law as being the principle action, and so it is proposed that the energy waves that transfer the kinetic energy through the row of balls are based on fine-grained rotational elasticity, similar in nature to that which arises in electromagnetic radiation. The other overlooked issue is that the kinetic energy waves that move through the metal balls immediately after a collision, move either to the right or to the left of the point of impact, or in both directions, but since energy transfer inside the balls has an absolute motion relative to the balls themselves, then whether the energy within the balls moves to the right, or to the left, or in both directions, must depend on the absolute motion of the balls. The direction of the energy transfer within the balls cannot depend on an arbitrary choice of rest frame. It therefore remains to determine the physical basis for absolute motion and kinetic energy. Only then, in terms of absolute motion, can the Newton's cradle be correctly analyzed.


O4 - Magnetic Repulsion and the Gyroscopic Force


Abstract.
The counterintuitive gravity defying behaviour that is exhibited by a pivoted gyroscope suggests the involvement of an active spin-induced force, similar in nature to the magnetic force, F = qv×B, and which cannot be predicted by Newtonian mechanics. The phenomenon of gyroscopic stability exhibits a strong reactance which cannot be accounted for by the moment of inertia. The physical connection between the inertial forces and magnetic repulsion will be investigated.

O4' - Magnetic Repulsion and the Gyroscopic Force

New revised version: 10th October 2015

This paper has been amended: "The essence of the change is that I have now firmly concluded that the inertial forces arise directly from Newton's laws of motion and not as supplements. Polar coordinates exposes the inertial forces in an inertial frame of reference". Here it is the new abstract:
The counterintuitive gravity defying behaviour that is exhibited by a pivoted gyroscope suggests the involvement of an active spin-induced force, similar in nature to the magnetic force, F = qv×B. The phenomenon of gyroscopic stability exhibits a strong spin-induced reactance which cannot be accounted for by the moment of inertia alone. The physical connection between the inertial forces and magnetic repulsion will be investigated.


P4 - Centrifugal Force and the Electron-Positron Sea

Abstract.
We often hear it said that centrifugal force is not a real force and that it is only the effects of inertia that are caused by a body undergoing its uniform straight line path, as per Newton's first law of motion. These effects of inertia however are very real and this suggests that the inertial path itself must have an underlying physical cause. This cause will now be ascribed to a background elasticity that is rooted in electrostatics. The electric dipole, with its inverse cube law field, will be proposed as the primary physical cause of centrifugal force, while the inertial path and the Mach Principle will be seen to result from the compound effect of a dense multitude of superimposed dipole fields filling all of space.



Q4 - Wikipedia and Centrifugal Force

Abstract.
Wikipedia is the on-line encyclopaedia that anybody can edit. The content changes on a continual basis. One of the rules is that editors must not insert original research. The contents must reflect what is stated in reliable sources. In the case of the centrifugal force article however, reliable sources don’t always agree, and over the years, the inability of editors at that article to consider the totality of existing knowledge on the subject has led to never ending discussions and edit wars. An example of the confusion that surrounds this topic can be found at this web link,
http://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/37968/centrifugal-force-and-polar-coordinates


R4 - Wikipedia and Coriolis Force

Abstract.
Wikipedia is the on-line encyclopaedia that anybody can edit. The content changes on a daily basis. One of the rules for editing is that editors must not insert original research. The contents must reflect exactly what is stated in reliable sources. Reliable sources present Coriolis force as an artefact of making observations from a rotating frame of reference. When stationary objects are viewed from a rotating frame of reference, it's true that the effects are unequivocally fictitious. However, in situations where an entire system is rotating, the Coriolis force can be very real, and this fact tends to cause confusion. It will be argued that in the former case scenarios there is no Coriolis force present at all, real or fictitious, while in the latter case scenarios the Coriolis force is due to Newton's laws of motion, and that it already exists independently of the rotating frame of reference.


S4 - The 1856 Weber-Kohlrausch Experiment (The Speed of Light)

Abstract.
Nineteenth century physicists Wilhelm Eduard Weber, Gustav Kirchhoff, and James Clerk-Maxwell are all credited with connecting electricity to the speed of light. Weber's breakthrough in 1856, in conjunction with Rudolf Kohlrausch, revealed the speed of light in the context of a ratio as between two different units of electric charge. In 1857 Kirchhoff connected this ratio to the speed of an electric signal along a wire. Finally in 1862, Maxwell connected this ratio to the elasticity in the all pervading luminiferous medium that serves as the carrier of light waves. This paper sets out to establish the fundamental cause of the speed of light.


T4 - Compressed Orbits and the Secret Behind E = mc²

Abstract.
On the astronomical scale, the potential energy in a closed orbit is due to the gravitational force of attraction. These are uncompressed orbits. The gravitational force is opposed by a centrifugal force acting internally from within the system. This article will now consider the nature of the potential energy in a system of multiple orbits that are pressing against each other with centrifugal force while striving to dilate. Centrifugal potential energy is shown to lie at the root of the famous equation E = mc² .



U4 - Atomic Clocks and Gravitational Field Strength

Abstract.
A redefinition of potential energy better emphasizes the physical reality of gravitational field strength. The current definition only deals with motion on the large scale and not with the fine-grained motions at molecular level which are relevant to the mechanism of atomic clocks.


V4 - The Inertial Helicopter

Abstract.
A sea level object that is moving horizontally at a speed greater than 8 km/sec is already in orbit and it will rise upwards due to centrifugal force. Two such objects tethered together while moving in opposite directions should therefore spiral upwards like a helicopter. It will be proposed that the atom is a dipole, and that it is the fundamental helicopter.


W4 - The Double Helix and the Electron-Positron Aether

Abstract.
This article takes a closer look at the bonding and stability mechanisms within the electron-positron dipole sea and how these result in the double helix theory of the magnetic field. The physical connection between the inertial forces and magnetic repulsion will be further investigated.


X4 - Electromagnetic Radiation in the Near Magnetic Field

Abstract.
This article follows on from previous papers on the double helix theory of the magnetic field. A closer look will be taken at the low energy electromagnetic radiation that is confined to a solenoidal path along the field lines within a near magnetic field, such as occurs in a transmission line pulse.


Y4 - Induction of Electrostatic Repulsion by Strong Gravity (The Link between Gravity and Electromagnetism)

Abstract.
The radial lines of force that are associated with Gauss's law indicate the presence of fluid-like sinks and sources in matter, whether or not we know where these lead to. This article will examine how two sinks can be either mutually attractive or mutually repulsive depending on the rate of flow.


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